Microbiology
       The Complete Guide
Google CustomSearch
eReport Microbiology Reports
Microbiology Reports
Blogs Popular Blogs
Scientists Show How...
Deep-Sea Bacteria...
39% of Bagged Salads...
Bacteria Are More...
Beewolves protect...
View All..
News Popular News
Bacterial balance...
Here's What's Awesome...
Fungi can digest...
Funny tales...
New laser treatment...
View All..
Bacteria
S.No Topics
Bacteria - Quick links
1. Bacteria - Taxonomy
2. Bacteria - Types
3. Bacteria - Diseases
4. Bacteria - Research
5. Bacteria - Culture Collection
6. Bacteria - Questions
7. Bacteria - News
8. Bacteria - Professional Links
9. Bacteria - Journals
 
 
Brief Introduction to Bacteria
Bacteria are one of the very important micro-organisms which live 
symbiotically with humans. Bacteria could be classified into different types like: • Anaerobic Bacteria • Anthrax Bacteria • Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Pictures • Bicho Bacteria • Bioluminescent • Coccus Bacteria • Coliform Bacteria • Disease Causing Bacteria • Dropped food Bacteria • E coli Bacteria • Flesh Eating Bacteria • Food Poisoning Bacteria • Good Bacteria • Gram Negative Bacteria • Gram Positive Bacteria • H Pylori Bacteria or Helicobacter Pylori Bacteria • Infectious Bacteria • Intestinal Bacteria • Iron Bacteria • Klebsiella Bacteria • Lactic Acid Bacteria • MRSA Bacteria • Ocean Bacteria • Peanut Butter Bacteria • Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria • Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria • Pneumonia bacteria • Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Bacteria • Replenish Good Bacteria In Vagina • Salmonella Bacteria • Serratia Airborne Bacteria • Skin Bacteria in Moist Places • Staphylococcus Bacteria • Stomach Bacteria • Strep Bacteria • Streptococcus Bacteria • Tetanus Bacteria • Throat Bacteria • Urine Bacteria • Vaginal Bacteria • Vaginosis Bacteria • Yogurt Bacteria
Microbexpert Search Engine

Advanced Search
Free eBooks Get Free Ebooks
Act Fast! Receive updated e-books. Absolutely free!

Microbexpert on Twitter
Follow Microbexpert on Twitter
Video Videos
View All..
Bacteria - Quick links

Anaerobic Bacteria :

Bacteria can be classified by their need and tolerance for O2:

1. Facultative bacteria, which grow in the presence or absence of O2
2. Microaerophilic bacteria, which tolerate low O2 concentrations but grow better      anaerobically or with > 10% CO2
3. Obligate anaerobic bacteria…Read more

An anaerobic bacteria culture is a method used to grow anaerobes from a clinical specimen. Obligate anaerobes are bacteria that can live only in the absence of oxygen. Obligate anaerobes are destroyed when exposed to the atmosphere for as briefly as 10 minutes. Some anaerobes are tolerant to small amounts of oxygen. Facultative anaerobes are those organisms that will… Read more

Although breathing is essential to life, the specific role that oxygen plays in maintaining life is not easily understood. Basically, in organisms that are able to use it, oxygen allows food molecules to be completely broken down, so that every possible bit of energy is extracted for use in running the… Read more

Anaerobic bacteria are a type of bacteria that grows in places which have little or no oxygen. Such bacteria infect deep lacerations, deep tissues, and internal organs. Infections caused by anaerobic bacteria are marked by bad-smelling pus, the formation of abscesses, and the destruction of tissue. The bacteria are most often located in the mouth, gastrointestinal tract, vagina, and on the skin… Read more

Anthrax Bacteria :

When the bacteria that cause anthrax (Bacillus anthracis) aren’t ravaging livestock or being used in acts of bioterrorism, they spend their lives as dormant spores. In these inert but hardy forms, the bacteria can weather tough environmental conditions while lying in wait for their next host. This is the standard explanation for what B.anthracis does between infections, and it’s too simple by far. It turns out that the bacterium has…Read more

What is anthrax infection?
Anthrax is an infection caused by a bacteria called Bacillus Anthracis. The name anthrax comes from the Greek word "anthrakas" which means "coal" reflecting the black rash caused by infection of the skin by this bacterium. The bacteria is naturally found in soil and can infect livestock. Most of the animal infections occur in South and Central America. There have been outbreaks of human anthrax as well. In the USA there were… Read more

Anthrax is an acute disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. It affects both humans and other animals. Most forms of the disease are lethal. There are effective vaccines against anthrax, and some forms of the disease respond well to antibiotic treatment. Like many other members of the genus Bacillus, Bacillus anthracis can form dormant spores that are able to survive in harsh conditions for… Read more

Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria Pictures
How do microbes "learn" to defeat antibiotics? That's a feverishly important question in an era of mounting resistance to life-saving drugs. Unfortunately, the answers are disturbing. "Molecular biology is telling us ... what the resistance mechanisms are, although we don't know all the details," says… Read more

MRSA stands for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria. This organism is known for causing skin infections in addition to many other types of infections. There are other designations in the scientific literature for these bacteria according to where the bacteria are acquired by patients, such as… Read more

Drug resistance condition in which infecting bacteria can resist the destructive effects of drugs such as antibiotics and sulfa drugs . Drug resistance has become a serious public health problem, since many disease-causing bacteria are no longer susceptible to previously effective drug therapies. For nearly 50 years after the first antibiotic, penicillin, became available in the 1940s, people took antibiotics' effectiveness against bacterial infections for… Read more

Bioluminescent :

Bioluminescence is the production and emission of light by a living organism. Its name is a hybrid word, originating from the Greek bios for "living" and the Latin lumen "light". Bioluminescence is a naturally occurring form of chemiluminescence where energy is released by a chemical reaction in the form of light emission. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is involved in most instances. The chemical reaction can occur either inside or outside the cell. In bacteria, the expression…Read more

Bioluminescence is simply light produced by a chemical reaction which originates in an organism. It can be expected anytime and in any region or depth in the sea. Its most common occurrence to the sailor is in the often brilliantly luminescent bow wave or wake of a surface ship…Read more

Deep in the ocean, where sunlight can no longer penetrate, lies an incredible world of darkness. And against all odds, this just happens to be the location of one of nature's most impressive artificial light shows. The creatures here have evolved their own ways of dealing with the darkness. Through a process known as bioluminescence, they have developed the ability to use chemicals within their bodies to produce light. If you have ever seen a firefly then you have witnessed the same process in action. Bioluminescence is…Read more

Coccus Bacteria :

Staphylococcus aureus . Staphylococcus is a very well known genus of bacteria. Colonies are "gold," or yellow on sheep blood agar solid media, hence the name. A common pathogen, boils, acne, wound infections, food poisoning are among a host of conditions caused by this organism. The organism is both pathogenic and invasive. It produces leukotoxin which can kill white blood cells and a wide variety of other toxins. S. aureus is quite pyogenic and in decades past was named Staphylococcus pyogenes, however that…Read more

The image seen here is a representation of a generic coccus. Cocci are classifications of any bacteria with a spherical shape, coming from a Latin word for .berry.. As cocci join with other cells to form groups, classification can become more specific. For example…Read more

In microbiology, a spherical-shaped bacterium. Many species of bacteria have characteristic arrangements that are useful in identification. Pairs of cocci are called diplococci; rows or chains of such cells are called streptococci; grapelike clusters of cells, staphylococci; packets of eight or more cells, sarcinae; and groups of four cells in a square arrangement, tetrads. These characteristic groupings occur as a result of…Read more

Coliform Bacteria :

Coliform is the name of a test adopted in 1914 by the Public Health Service for the Enterobacteriaceae family. It is the commonly-used bacterial indicator of sanitary quality of foods and water. They are defined as rod-shaped Gram-negative non-spore forming organisms. Some enteron forms can ferment lactose with the production of acid and gas when incubated at 35-37°C. Coliforms are abundant in the feces  of warm-blooded animals, but can also be found in the aquatic environment, in soil…Read more

Microorganisms that usually occur in the intestinal tract of animals, including man, and are the most widely accepted indicators of water quality in the United States. More precisely they are evidence of recent human fecal contamination of water supplies. The coliforms are facultative anaerobic (not requiring oxygen), nonsporulating, rod-shaped bacteria that produce acid and gas from…Read more

What the heck does it mean that there are "52 MPN fecal coliforms/100ml of water? Is it good to drink? To wash dishes in? To bath in? Irrigate with? The average person, or even engineers and scientists who don't have a public health or microbiology background wouldn't have a clue. In fact, these units are so obscure that even people who work with…Read more

Coliform bacteria are organisms that are present in the environment and in the feces of all warm-blooded animals and humans. Coliform bacteria will not likely cause illness. However, their presence in drinking water indicates that disease-causing organisms (pathogens) could be in the water system. Testing drinking water for all possible pathogens is complex, time-consuming, and expensive. It is relatively easy and inexpensive to test…Read more

Disease Causing Bacteria :

Bacteria cause disease. Most of these bacteria, like those listed below make their presence felt immediatley and may or may not result in death. Some people though, can be infected with a bacterium that normally causes a disease and not show any harmfull effects at all, people like this are called carriers. A sad example of this was Typhoid Mary  who was identified as a carrier for…Read more

Bacteria that cause disease are called pathogenic bacteria. Bacteria can cause diseases in humans, in other animals, and also in plants. Some bacteria can only make one particular host ill; others cause trouble in a number of hosts, depending on the host specificity of the bacteria. The diseases caused by bacteria are almost as diverse as the bugs…Read more

The term 'germ' actually refers to any microorganism, especially those microorganisms that cause disease. Included in this category are certain viruses, bacteria, and fungi. What is the difference between these three types of microbes? Which ones cause which diseases, and should they be treated differently? Because viruses, bacteria, and fungi cause many well-known diseases, it is common to confuse them, but they are…Read more

Regardless of any other factors, water piped into the home must be potable. To be potable it should be completely free of disease organisms. Water is the breeding ground for an almost unbelievably large variety of organisms. Water does not produce these organisms. It merely is an ideal medium in which they can grow. These organisms gain entry into water through a variety of sources. They enter water from natural sources, surface drainage, and sewage. Many of the organisms in water are harmless. In fact, they are extremely beneficial to man. Others have a mild nuisance value. And still others are a source of disease. In general, those organisms which are potential disease-producers are of primary concern. These are of five types: (1) bacteria, (2) protozoa, (3) worms, (4) viruses, and (5) fungi. The presence of certain organisms of these various types can…Read more

Dropped food Bacteria :

How many times have you stared longingly at that little piece of chocolate cake or French fry you unwittingly dropped on the floor, then yelled "Five second rule!" as an excuse to rescue the tasty morsel and pop it into your mouth? C'mon, everybody's done it. Bacteria can't move that fast, right? Well, researchers at South Carolina's Clemson University proved they can. Scientists infected several common surfaces--tile, wood and carpet--with enough salmonella bacteria to cause a decent bout of food poisoning. They then placed slices of bread and bologna on the surfaces for varying lengths…Read more

Research has proved that the 5-second rule is wrong. Bacteria can attach to food even if it's picked up very fast. So it's not a good idea to eat food that has hit the floor. While floors that look dirty are obvious hazards, even floors that appear clean can harbor bacteria. Some germs can survive on floors for a long time, and without a powerful microscope it's impossible to determine how many are present. Bacteria can attach to food as soon as it hits the floor. That means that even food left on the floor just for an instant can become contaminated if conditions are right. And foods with wet surfaces, like an apple slice, can pick up bacteria more…Read more

E coli Bacteria :

Escherichia coli. (commonly abbreviated E. coli is a Gram negative rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded  organisms (endotherms). Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some, such as serotype O157:H7, can cause serious food poisoning in humans, and are occasionally responsible for product recalls. The harmless strains are part of the normal flora of the gut, and can…Read more

E. coli is a common type of bacteria that can get into food, like beef and vegetables. E. coli is short for the medical term Escherichia coli. The strange thing about these bacteria — and lots of other bacteria — is that they're not always harmful to you. E. coli normally lives inside your intestines, where it helps your body break down and digest the food you eat. Unfortunately, certain types (called strains) of E. coli can get…Read more

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a bacterium that commonly lives in the intestines of people and animals. There are many strains (types) of E. coli. Most of the E. coli are normal inhabitants of the small intestine and colon and are non-pathogenic, meaning they do not cause disease in the intestines. Nevertheless, these non-pathogenic E. coli can cause disease if…Read more

Flesh Eating Bacteria :

Necrotizing fasciitis (NF), commonly known as flesh-eating disease or flesh-eating bacteria, is a rare infection of the deeper layers of skin and subcutaneous tissues, easily spreading across the fascial  plane within the subcutaneous tissue. Type I describes a polymicrobial infection, whereas Type II describes a monomicrobial infection. Many types of bacteria can cause necrotizing fasciitis (e.g., Group A streptococcus (Streptococcus pyogenes), Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio vulnificus, Clostridium perfringens, Bacteroides fragilis). Such infections…Read more

Media reports have popularized the term "flesh-eating bacteria" to refer to a very rare but serious bacterial infection known as necrotizing fasciitis. Necrotizing fasciitis is an infection that starts in the tissues just below the skin and spreads along the flat layers of tissue (known as fascia) that separate different layers of soft tissue, such as muscle and fat. This dangerous infection is most common in the..Read more

Flesh eating bacteria: Over the last several years, you've heard stories about a flesh-eating bacteria that can dissolve muscles and skin, leading to amputations and even death. This supposedly new disease may be caused by taking non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofin, aspirin, Motrin and Tolectin when you are infected with a beta strep germ (1). A report in the New Zealand Medical Journal shows that five of seven cases of flesh-eating bacteria occurred in people who took these pain medicines. When you get an infection, certain white blood cells called macrophages produce a chemical called tumor necrosis factor, which travels to your brain and causes your body to…Read more

Food Poisoning Bacteria :

Symptoms of food poisoning depend on the type of contaminant and the amount eaten. The symptoms can develop rapidly, within 30 minutes, or slowly, worsening over days to weeks. Most of the common contaminants cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramping…Read more

Food Poisoning Bacteria - This short paper in our series covering food poisoning bacteria examines how various bacterium causes food poisoning, paying closer attention to five of the most common bacteria; Salmonella, Listeria, E.coli O157, Campylobacter and Clostridium perfringens…Read more

The leftovers in the fridge smelled a little weird, but you went ahead and ate them. You were so hungry, you didn't even heat them up. A couple of hours later, though, you started to feel sick. Powerful waves of pain rumbled through your stomach. They went away, but not for long. Then you even threw up! That sounds like a case of food poisoning. No one put poison in your food, but bacteria probably grew in the food in the fridge and those bacteria made you sick. Food poisoning can be mild and last just a short time or can be more serious. Let's find out how to…Read more

Good Bacteria :

Good bacteria to prevent disease: When you eat, enzymes from your intestines, stomach, liver and pancreas break down carbohydrates into their building blocks called sugars; proteins into amino acids; and fats into glycerol, fatty acids and monoglycerides that can be absorbed into your bloodstream. However, many plant foods contain undigestible starches that cannot be broken down into…Read more

Good bacteria can do several things to promote health. It helps to break down plant starches and other foods that the human body has difficulty digesting. This allows the body to convert more food into energy. Good bacteria also help the body to turn extra calories into fat. This may lead to the idea that a person's inclination towards obesity may be partially due to the type of bacteria in his or her digestive tract.

The human body does not make vitamin K by itself. Bacteria create this, and other essential vitamins, as by-products of the food and other digestive materials they ingest. They also help our bodies to break down drugs and carcinogens, which can cause cancer. This is not the only way that bacteria help to prevent cancer…
Read more

Probiotics are live microorganisms (in most cases, bacteria) that are similar to beneficial microorganisms found in the human gut. They are also called "friendly bacteria" or "good bacteria." Probiotics are available to consumers mainly in the form of dietary supplements and foods. They can be used as…Read more

The investigators show that "good" bacteria in the gut keep the immune system primed to more effectively fight infection from invading pathogenic bacteria. Altering the intricate dynamic between resident and foreign bacteria -- via antibiotics, for example -- compromises an animal's immune response, specifically, the…Read more

Gram Negative Bacteria :

Gram-negative bacteria are those bacteria  that do not retain crystal violet dye in the Gram staining protocol. In a Gram stain test, a counterstain  (commonly safranin) is added after the crystal violet, coloring all Gram-negative bacteria with a red or pink color. The test itself is useful in classifying two distinct types of bacteria based on the structural differences of their cell walls. On the other hand, Gram-positive bacteria will retain the crystal violet dye when washed in a decolorizing solution. The pathogenic capability of Gram-negative bacteria is…Read more

Gram-Negative Bacteria (Pseudomonas Aeruginosa) are simply called so because of their detection by the Gram’s Stain test in which they do not retain the crystal violet color (dye) in their cell wall. The Gram-Negative bacteria cell-wall holds the pink or reddish dye once a counterstain chemical…Read more

The cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria is a thinner structure with distinct layers. There is an outer layer which is more like a cytoplasmic membrane in composition with the typical trilaminar structure. The main component of the Gram-negative cell wall is lipopolysaccharide. Additionally there is present phospholipid, protein, lipoprotein and a small amount of peptidoglycan. The lipopolysaccharide consists of…Read more

Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet dye in the Gram stain protocol. Gram-negative bacteria will thus appear red or pink following a Gram stain procedure due to the effects of the counterstain (for example safranin). In microbiology, the visualization of bacteria at the microscopic level is facilitated by the use of stains, which react with components present in some cells but not others. This technique is used to classify bacteria as either Gram-positive or Gram-negative depending on their colour following a specific staining procedure originally…
Read more

Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria which do not turn purple in the Gram Staining process used as a basic step in the identification of bacteria. All bacteria can be divided into either gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria, reflecting key differences in the composition of their cell walls. These differences often have a direct influence on what the bacteria does, with some gram-negative bacteria being pathogenic in…Read more

Gram Positive Bacteria :

Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining. This is in contrast to Gram-negative bacteria, which cannot retain the crystal violet stain, instead taking up the counterstain  (safranin  or fuchsin) and appearing red or pink. Gram-positive organisms are able to retain the crystal violet stain because of the high amount of peptidoglycan  in the cell wall. Gram-positive cell walls typically lack the…Read more

Gram-positive bacteria are characterised by having as part of their cell wall structure peptidoglycan as well as polysaccharides and/or teichoic acids. The peptidoglycans which are sometimes also called murein are heteropolymers of glycan strands, which are cross-linked through short peptides…Read more

Gram-positive bacteria are generally divided into the Actinobacteria  and the Firmicutes. The Actinobacteria or actinomycetes are a group of Gram-positive bacteria with high G+C ratio. They include some of the most common soil bacteria. Other Actinobacteria inhabit plants and animals and including some pathogens, such as Mycobacterium, Corynebacterium, Nocardia, Rhodococcus and a few species of Streptomyces. Actinobacteria produce secondary metabolites and are important to the pharmacological and biotechnology industries. Streptomyces species…Read more

H Pylori Bacteria or Helicobacter Pylori Bacteria :

Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that can inhabit various areas of the stomach  and duodenum. It causes a chronic low-level inflammation  of the stomach lining and is strongly linked to the development of duodenal and gastric ulcers and stomach cancer. Over 80% of individuals infected with the bacterium are asymptomatic. The bacterium was initially named Campylobacter pyloridis, then renamed C. pylori (pylori = genitive of pylorus) to correct a Latin grammar error. When 16S rRNA gene sequencing and other research showed in 1989 that the bacterium did not…Read more

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a type of bacteria. Researchers believe that H. pylori is responsible for the majority of peptic ulcers. H. pylori infection is common in the United States. About 20 percent of people under 40 years old and half of those over 60 years have it. Most infected people, however, do not develop ulcers. Why H. pylori does not cause ulcers in every infected person is not known. Most likely, infection depends on characteristics of the infected person, the type of H. pylori, and other factors yet to be discovered. Researchers are not certain how…Read more

The bacteria H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori) usually don't cause problems in childhood. However, if left untreated the bacteria can lead to digestive illnesses, including gastritis (the irritation and inflammation of the lining of the stomach), peptic ulcer disease (characterized by sores that form in the stomach or the upper part of the small intestine, called the duodenum), and…Read more

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a bacterium that causes chronic inflammation of the inner lining of the stomach (gastritis) in humans. This bacterium also is the most common cause of ulcers worldwide. H. pylori infection is most likely acquired by ingesting contaminated food and water and through person to…Read more

Infectious Bacteria :

An infectious disease is a clinically evident illness resulting from the presence of pathogenic microbial  agents, including pathogenic viruses, pathogenic bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular parasites, and aberrant proteins known as prions. These pathogens  are able to cause disease in animals and/or plants. Infectious pathologies are also called communicable diseases or transmissible diseases due to their potential of transmission from one person or…Read more

Bacteria are living things that have only one cell. Under a microscope, they look like balls, rods or spirals. They are so small that a line of 1,000 could fit across a pencil eraser. Most bacteria won't hurt you - less than 1 percent makes people sick. Many are helpful. Some bacteria help to digest food, destroy disease-causing cells and give the body needed vitamins. Bacteria are also used in making…Read more

Intestinal Bacteria :

The small bowel, also known as the small intestine, is the section of the  gastrointestinal tract that connects the stomach with the colon. The main purpose of the small intestine is to digest and absorb food into the body. The small intestine is approximately 21 feet in length and begins in the duodenum  (into which food from the stomach empties), followed by the jejunum, and then the  ileum (which empties the food that has not been digested into the large intestine or colon). The entire gastrointestinal tract, including the…Read more

Several "friendly" intestinal  bacteria perform many important bodily functions. There are actually a great many lactobacillus and other bacteria that can inhabit the human colon, but I will mention the three that seem to be most important. These are Lactobacillus acidophilus (the most famous), Lactobacillus bifidus (more common to the baby colon), and Streptococcus faecium (not S. faecalis, a possible pathogenic bacteria). Various cultures of acidophilus are…Read more

Iron Bacteria :

Common effects of excess iron in water are a reddish-brown color, stained laundry and poor tasting coffee. An equally common but less well understood problem is infestation of water supplies with iron bacteria. Iron bacteria are a natural part of the environment in Wisconsin and most other parts of the world. These microorganisms combine dissolved iron or manganese with oxygen and use it to form rust-colored deposits. In the process, the bacteria produce a brown slime that builds up on well screens, pipes, and plumbing fixtures. In Wisconsin the dramatic effects of iron bacteria are seen in surface waters as brown slimy masses on stream bottoms and lakeshores or as an oily sheen upon the water. More serious problems occur when bacteria build up in well systems. Iron bacteria in wells do not cause health problems, but they can have the following unpleasant and…Read more

Detecting iron bacteria: There are certain indications that your well may have an iron bacteria problem. These are a red, yellow, or orange color to the water; slime on the inner walls of the toilet tank; and a smell that may resemble fuel oil, cucumber or sewage…Read more

Klebsiella Bacteria :

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative, non-motile, encapsulated, lactose fermenting, facultative anaerobic, rod shaped bacterium found in the normal flora of the mouth, skin, and intestines. It is clinically the most important member of the Klebsiella  genus of Enterobacteriaceae; it is closely related to K. oxytoca from which it is distinguished by being indole-negative and by its ability to grow on both melezitose and 3-hydroxybutyrate. It naturally occurs in the soil and about 30% of strains can fix nitrogen in…Read more

As you may know, we all have millions of bacteria in our gastrointestinal tracts, primarily in the colon (or "large" bowel). These bacteria are important for normal bowel health and function. Klebsiella is the genus name for one of these bacteria. When Klebsiella bacteria get outside of the gut, however, serious infection can occur. As a general rule, Klebsiella infections tend to occur in people with a weakened immune system. Many of these infections are obtained when a person is in the hospital for some other reason. The most common infection caused by Klebsiella bacteria outside…Read more

We all have millions of bacteria in our gastrointestinal tracts, primarily in the colon (or "large" bowel). These bacteria are important for normal bowel health and function. Klebsiella is the genus name for one of these bacteria found in the respiratory, intestinal, and urinogenital tracts of animals and man.  When Klebsiella bacteria get outside of the gut, however, serious infection can occur. K. pneumoniae is second only to E. coli as a urinary tract pathogen. Klebsiella infections are encountered far more often now than in the past. This is probably due to the bacterium's…Read more

Lactic Acid Bacteria :

Lactic acid bacteria have the property of producing lactic acid from sugars by a process called fermentation. The genera Bacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus and Streptococcus are important members of this group. The taxonomy of lactic acid bacteria has been based on the gram reaction and the production of lactic acid from various fermentable carbohydrates. Lactobacilli are gram positive and vary in…
Read more

Lactic acid bacteria are a group of related bacteria that produce lactic acid as a result of carbohydrate fermentation. These microbes are broadly used by us in the production of fermented food products, such as yogurt (Streptococcus spp. and Lactobacillus spp.), cheeses (Lactococcus spp.), sauerkraut (Leuconostoc  spp.) and sausage. These organisms are heterotrophic and generally have complex nutritional requirements because they lack many biosynthetic capabilities. Most species have multiple requirements for amino acids and vitamins. Because of this, lactic acid bacteria are generally abundant only in…Read more

Lactic acid bacteria have been used to ferment or culture foods for at least 4000 years. They are used in particular in fermented milk products from all over the world, including yoghurt, cheese, butter, buttermilk, kefir and…Read more

MRSA Bacteria :

MRSA stands for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria. This organism is known for causing skin infections in addition to many other types of infections. There are other designations in the scientific literature for these bacteria according to where the bacteria are acquired by patients, such as…Read more

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterium  responsible for several difficult-to-treat infections  in humans. It may also be called multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus  (ORSA). MRSA is, by definition, any…Read more

MRSA infections, also known as Mersa infections, are caused by Staph aureus bacteria. This bacteria is carried by 1 in 3 people. The drug resistant type known as MRSA is only found in about 1-2% of the population. MRSA colonization does occur in otherwise healthy people but often  mrsa carriers will not suffer an infection until the…Read more

Ocean Bacteria :

Newly discovered ocean bacteria fixes nitrogen instead of carbon: A remarkable species of cyanobacteria possessing a unique nitrogen fixation adaptation has recently been discovered in the open ocean, report researchers writing in the November 14th issue of Science. "Fixation" is the process by which bacteria convert ambient sources of otherwise unusable…Read more

Peanut Butter Bacteria :

Hundreds of people have contracted salmonella poisoning from contaminated jars of peanut butter, the FDA announced last week. ConAgra, the manufacturer responsible for the outbreak, will shell out more than $50 million to recall all of the Peter Pan and Wal-Mart "Great Value" brand peanut butter made at its…Read more

If you or a loved one had injuries consisting of an illness or infection which you believe may have resulted from eating peanut butter infected with the salmonella bacteria, you may have a lawsuit that should be pursued. Although our lawyers who handle lawsuits arising out of the recall of the contaminated peanut butter are located in Maryland (MD), Virginia (VA) and Washington, D.C. (DC), our food and…Read more

Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria :

Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB):Most of the cultivable soil being alkaline in nature contains less available phosphorus. Due to higher concentration of Calcium, whenever phosphatic fertilizers are applied in such soil, the large quantity of it gets fixed as Tri-Calcium Phosphate as it is water insoluble and hence becomes unavailable to the crop. Certain soil microorganisms have inherent capacity to dissolve part of the fixed phosphorus and make it…Read more

A great portion of phosphorus from chemical fertilizers becomes insoluble turning into calcium or magnesium salts in calcareous soils and iron or aluminium salts in acid environments all of which are unavailable to plants. To transform the insoluble forms of phosphorus into soluble forms, Phosphorus Solubilizing Microorganisms (PSM) would be essential. The soil bacteria and fungi comprise the greatest percentages of phosphate solublizing microorganisms, known as PSM or Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) and…Read more

Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria :

Numerous species of soil bacteria which flourish in the rhizosphere of plants, but which may grow in, on, or around plant tissues, stimulate plant growth by a plethora of mechanisms. These bacteria are collectively known as PGPR (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria). The search for PGPR and investigation of their modes of action are increasing at a rapid pace as efforts are made to exploit them commercially as biofertilizers. After an…Read more

Although many studies have been conducted to identify the specific traits by which plant growth–promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) promote plant growth, usually they were limited to studying just one or two of these traits. We selected 116 isolates from bulk soil and the rhizosphere of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]  and examined them for a wide array of traits that might increase  early soybean growth in nonsterile soil (PGPR traits). A subsample of 23 isolates…Read more

Plant growth promoting rhizo-bacteria (PGPR) affect plant growth by producing and releasing secondary metabolites (plant growth regulators/phytohormones/biologically active substances), facilitating the availability and…Read more

Pneumonia bacteria :

Bacterial Pneumonia Overview

Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs. People with pneumonia usually complain of coughing, fever, shortness of breath, and chest pain. Your body's immune system usually keeps bacteria from infecting your lungs. In bacterial pneumonia, bacteria reproduce in your lungs, while your body tries to fight off the infection. This response to bacterial invaders is called inflammation. When the inflammation occurs in the…Read more

Medical information on bacterial pneumonia, including symptoms, causes, signs, treatment, medications, and more on Medscape from WebMD. Bacterial pneumonia is caused by a pathogenic infection of the lungs and may present as a primary disease process or as the final coup de grace in the individual who is already debilitated. Pneumonia may be further categorized into community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), or hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) or institutional-acquired pneumonia (IAP). William Henry Harrison, the ninth president of the…Read more

Pneumonia is a common illness that affects millions of people each year in the United States. Germs called bacteria, viruses, and fungi may cause pneumonia. Ways you can get pneumonia include:

* Bacteria and viruses living in your nose, sinuses, or mouth may spread to your    lungs.
* You may breathe some of these germs directly into your lungs.
* You breathe in (inhale) food, liquids, vomit, or secretions from the mouth into your lungs (aspiration pneumonia)

Pneumonia caused by…Read more

Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Bacteria :

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common bacterium which can cause disease in animals and humans. It is found in soil, water, skin flora and most man-made environments throughout the world. It thrives not only in normal atmospheres, but also with little oxygen, and has thus colonised many natural and artificial environments. It uses a wide range of organic material for food; in animals, the versatility enables the…
Read more

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is member of the Gamma Proteobacteria class of Bacteria. It is a Gram-negative, aerobic rod belonging to the bacterial family Pseudomonadaceae. Since the revisionist taxonomy based on conserved macromolecules (e.g. 16S ribosomal RNA) the family includes only members of the genus Pseudomonas which are…Read more

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacteria that lives in soil, water, and even in environments like hot tubs. For most healthy people, this bacteria seldom poses a problem. Occasionally people will develop conditions like hot tub rash, and swimmer’s ear, which may be due to contact with these germs. These conditions can…Read more

Pseudomonas is a gram-negative rod that belongs to the family Pseudomonadaceae. More than half of all clinical isolates produce the blue-green pigment pyocyanin. Pseudomonas often has a characteristic sweet odor. These pathogens are widespread in nature, inhabiting soil, water, plants, and animals (including humans). Pseudomonas aeruginosa has become an important cause of…Read more

Pseudomonas infections are caused by any of several types of the gram-negative bacteria Pseudomonas, especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Infections range from mild external ones (affecting the ear or hair follicles) to serious internal infections (affecting the lungs, bloodstream, or heart valves). Symptoms vary depending on which…Read more

Replenish Good Bacteria in Vagina :

Increasing the good bacteria in your body is very beneficial and helps the body to fight off bad or invading bacteria. When there is an imbalance, the body is much more susceptible to illness. Yogurt contains a naturally occurring bacteria called "acidophilus" which thrives in more acidic environments such as the stomach and vagina. This friendly bacteria are…Read more

Salmonella Bacteria :

Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped, Gram-negative, non-spore forming, predominantly motile enterobacteria with diameters around 0.7 to 1.5 µm, lengths from 2 to 5 µm, and flagella  which project in all directions (i.e. peritrichous). They are chemoorganotrophs, obtaining their energy from oxidation and reduction reactions using organic sources, and are facultative anaerobes; most species produce hydrogen sulfide,[1]  which can readily be…Read more

Salmonella (S.) is the genus name for a large number (over 2,500) of types of bacteria. Each type is distinctly identifiable by its specific protein coating. The types are otherwise closely related…Read more

Salmonella bacteria are to blame for most reported cases of food poisoning. While there are more than 2,300 types of the bacteria, two types, Salmonella Enteritidis and Salmonella Typhimurium, are responsible for half of all cases of Salmonella poisoning. Salmonella bacteria are found in the intestinal tracts and feces of animals, but water, soil, insects and live animals can also carry the bacteria. Salmonella Enteritidis is found in…Read more

Serratia Airborne Bacteria :

What is that occasional pink stuff in your toilet, shower, pet’s dish or in your teen aged son’s bathroom sink? It’s most likely a bacteria called Serratia marcescens bacteria.That’s a lab dish full of it in the photo to the left. Each year, a few customers call the City of Eden Prairie ’s Water Utility to ask about a slimy pink substance that sometimes forms in moist areas around their homes. They most frequently observe it in toilet bowls, on surfaces in shower stalls and bathtub enclosures, on tiles, in sinks, and in pet water dishes. A red or pink pigmented bacteria known as Serratia marcescens is the…Read more

Serratia bacteria is a well-known nosocomial pathogen that is present in hospitals and in environments with high humidity such as the sinks and bathrooms of ordinary homes. When people who are in a weakened physical state inhale airborne water droplets which contain this bacteria, it can lead to respiratory infections and diseases such as pneumonia.
Now, tests performed in a chamber having a volume of 40 m3 in a laboratory leveled Bio-Safety Level 3*5 to handle airborne microorganisms, virus experiments, and the like, confirm that when serratia bacteria were dispersed in the chamber and the change in…Read more

Skin Bacteria in Moist Places :

The skin flora are the microorganisms  which reside on the skin. Most research has been upon those that reside upon the 2 square meters of human skin. Many of them are bacteria of which there are around 1000 species upon human skin from 19 phyla. The total number of bacteria on an average human has been estimated at 1012. Most are found in the superficial layers of the epidermis and the upper parts of…Read more

There are up to 100 times more kinds of bacteria thriving in "vibrant communities" in healthy skin than previously known, report NIH researcher Elizabeth A. Grice, PhD, and colleagues at the National Human Genome Research Institute. Those bugs aren't diseases - they are part of us, says study leader…Read more

Staphylococcus Bacteria :

Staphylococcus bacteria is bacteria  in the Staphylococcus genus, a very common bacterial genus which is very widely distributed throughout the world, making it a familiar sight in doctors offices and labs. In fact, you are hosting a few Staphylococcus species right this very minute, because these bacteria  are part of the body's natural bacterial fauna. The most famous Staphylococcus species is probably S. aureus, the bacterium responsible for the well known “staph” infections which…Read more

Staphylococcal infections are a group of different infections that are caused by staphylococcus bacteria. There are a number of different types of staphylococcus bacteria, but most infections are caused by a type called staphylococcal aureus (S. aureus). S. aureus is common in humans and it is often found living inside the nose, and on the surface of the armpits and buttocks. In most cases, the bacteria do not…Read more

Staphylococci (‘staph’) are a common type of bacteria that live on the skin and mucous membranes (eg. in nose) of humans. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the most important of these bacteria in human diseases. Other staphylococci, including S. epidermidis, are considered commensals, or normal inhabitants of the skin surface. About 15-40 per cent of healthy humans are carriers of S. aureus, that is…Read more

Stomach Bacteria :

There are only few bacteria specialized to survive in the stomach. For most others, the stomach is a real bottle neck, and most will die when they stay in it too long, or when the pH is too low (too acid). Don't forget, however, that food particles can temporary increase the pH, so that bacteria can 'sneek through' with a meal. That is how food-borne pathogens reach the intestines where…Read more

Helicobacter Pylori, this unusual name identifies a specific bacteria that can cause infection of the stomach. This infection can contribute to the development of diseases, such as dyspepsia (heartburn, bloating and nausea), gastritis (inflammation of the stomach), and ulcers in the stomach and duodenum. It will be useful to know some things about the upper digestive tract to understand how…
Read more

Streptococcus Bacteria :

Group A streptococcus (group A strep) is a bacterium that is commonly found in the throat and on the skin. The letter "A" refers to a classification of bacteria in the genus Streptococcus according to the makeup of the organism's cell wall. Group A strep bacteria might cause no symptoms of disease, but they can also cause infections that range from mild to…Read more

Streptococcus is a genus of spherical Gram-positive bacteria belonging to the phylum Firmicutes[2]  and the lactic acid bacteria group. Cellular division occurs along a single axis in these bacteria, and thus they grow in chains or pairs, hence the name — from Greek στρεπτος streptos, meaning easily bent or twisted, like a chain (twisted chain). Contrast this with staphylococci, which divide along multiple axes and generate…Read more

Streptococcus bacteria  is a genus of coccus, or spherelike, Gram-positive, chained bacteria belonging to the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group. Individual streptococcus cells may be round or ovoid and all lack the enzyme catylase. Because these cells divide along a single plane, streptococci occur in pairs or…Read more

Tetanus Bacteria :

Tetanus is an acute, often-fatal disease of the nervous system that is caused by nerve toxins produced by the bacterium Clostridium tetani. This bacterium is found throughout the world in the soil and in animal and..Read more

Tetanus is an infectious disease caused by contamination of wounds from bacteria that live in the soil. The causative bacterium Clostridium tetani is a hardy organism capable of living many years in the soil in a form called a spore. The bacterium was first isolated in 1899 by S. Kitasato while he was working with R. Koch in Germany. Kitasato also found the toxin responsible for tetanus and developed the first protective vaccine against…Read more

Tetanus is a condition that affects the nervous system and causes painful, uncontrolled muscle spasms. Because of widespread immunization, tetanus is now rare. Another name for tetanus is lockjaw…Read more

Throat Bacteria :

Sore throats can be caused by many things. Viruses (such as those that cause colds and mononucleosis) can lead to a sore throat. Bacteria (such as those that cause strep throat) can also cause a sore throat, as can smoking, breathing polluted air and allergies to pet dander, pollens…Read more

Bacterial infection of the throat is one of the reasons for a sore throat in an adult or a child. If the bacterial infection of the throat is not attended to promptly it may lead to other conditions like ear infections or tonsillitis. A person with bacterial infection of the throat will have his throat inflamed and it will be…Read more

Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a bacteria that is often found in the throat and on the skin of people. GAS is most often associated with “strep throat” and impetigo (blisters on the skin). On rare occasions, GAS can cause severe, life-threatening illness like toxic shock syndrome and…Read more

Urine Bacteria :

Bacteria may be insignificant contaminants or important pathogens. Bacteria are too few to see in cleanly collected fresh urine from healthy animals. Pathologic bactiuria is usually (but not always) accompanied by increased numbers of leukocytes (pyuria). The presence of bacteria in urine should always be interpreted in conjunction with the WBC count and…Read more

Urine actually has little bacteria to begin with. A lot of the filtrate are salts, water and food pigments that pass through the blood stream. If the person is sick, there could be some of the bacteria that caused the illness in urine. Urine accumulates bacteria very fast. Urine is more or…Read more

Vaginal Bacteria :

Bacterial vaginosis is vaginal condition that can produce vaginal discharge and results from an overgrowth of normal bacteria in the vagina. In the past, the condition was called Gardnerella vaginitis, after the bacteria that were thought to cause the condition. However, the newer name, bacterial vaginosis, reflects the…Read more

Few women are comfortable talking about vaginal health openly, leading to misinformation, misdiagnosis and potentially ineffective treatments. But researchers at the University of Idaho (UI) are helping to increase understanding about normal vaginal biology so that women can better identify conditions that…Read more

Vaginosis Bacteria :

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common cause of vaginal discharge. The discharge is not usually itchy or sore. It is not a sexually transmitted infection. Symptoms are often mild, and it may clear without treatment. A course of antibiotics usually…
Read more

Bacterial Vaginosis, also known as BV and vaginal bacteriosis is one of the most common causes of infection in the female reproductive system. Very often, this medical condition is confused with other vaginal infections like candidiasis (yeast infection) or trichomoniasis (infection caused by Trichomonas vaginalis.) However, the two aforementioned conditions are not bacteria-based, and therefore do not qualify as Bacterial Vaginosis or BV. In physiology, a woman’s genital area has a…Read more

Yogurt Bacteria :

Cancer, high cholesterol, diarrhea, infections. You name it, somebody says that yogurt can prevent or cure it. Is there anything to yogurt's reputation? There sure is. But that's the easy part. Making sure that your yogurt can do what the yogurt used by researchers does is another story. Bulgaricus & Friends. It's the two bacteria that turn milk into yogurt that provide yogurt's clearest health benefit. Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus help digest lactose, the milk sugar that about a quarter of all…Read more

Pylori Bacteria :

Helicobacter pylori bacteria: Introduction: A bacteria found in the lining of the gastric system which can cause stomach infections resulting in conditions such as peptic ulcer disease, dyspepsia and gastritis. Occasionally, the bacterial infection may even lead to gastric cancers. The bacteria may exist in some people without causing any symptoms. ...more »Symptoms of Helicobacter
pylori bacteria...Read more

Bacteria Test :

How do you find out if you have a bacteria problem? To find out if bacteria is a problem in your water, you must test. The PRO-LAB Professional Bacteria in Water Test Kit offers two (2) types of analytical methods. The first method simply involves counting the number of colonies that are growing on the petri dish. The second method (optional) requires send- ing the petri dish to PRO-LAB for a more detailed analysis, which will identify the bacteria present in your...Read more

H Pylori Bacteria :

Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a type of bacteria. Researchers believe that H. pylori is responsible for the majority of peptic ulcers. H. pylori infection is common in the United States. About 20 percent of people under 40 years old and half of those over 60 years have it. Most infected people, however, do not develop ulcers. Why H. pylori does not cause ulcers in every infected person is not known. Most likely, infection depends on characteristics of the infected person, the type of H. pylori, and other factors yet to be discovered. Researchers are not certain how people contract H. pylori, but they think it may be through food or water. Researchers have found H. pylori in the saliva of some infected people, so the bacteria may also spread through mouth-to-mouth contact such as...Read more

Bacteria Vaginosis :

Bacterial vaginosis is vaginal condition that can produce vaginal discharge and results from an overgrowth of normal bacteria in the vagina. In the past, the condition was called Gardnerella vaginitis, after the bacteria that were thought to cause the condition. However, the newer name, bacterial vaginosis, reflects the fact that there are a number of species of bacteria that naturally live in the vaginal area and may grow to excess. The Gardnerella organism is not the sole culprit causing the symptoms. When these multiple species of bacteria become...Read more

Helicobacter Bacteria :

Helicobacter pylori (pronounced /ˌhɛlɪkoˈbæktər pɪˈlɔraɪ/) is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that can inhabit various areas of the stomach  and duodenum. It causes a chronic low-level inflammation  of the stomach lining and is strongly linked to the development of duodenal and gastric ulcers and stomach cancer. Over 80% of individuals infected with the bacterium are asymptomatic.The bacterium was initially named Campylobacter pyloridis, then renamed C. pylori (pylori = genitive of pylorus) to correct a Latin grammar error. When 16S rRNA gene sequencing and other research showed in 1989 that the bacterium did not belong in the genus Campylobacter, it was placed in its own genus, Helicobacter. The genus derived from...Read more

Vaginal Bacteria :

Vaginal Bacteria Poorly Understood: Few women are comfortable talking about vaginal health openly, leading to misinformation, misdiagnosis and potentially ineffective treatments. But researchers at the University of Idaho (UI) are helping to increase understanding about normal vaginal biology so that women can better identify conditions that make them prone to infections and...Read more

 

Intestinal Bacteria :

Our health is supported by trillions of beneficial microorganisms that comprise our intestinal flora. When our intestinal flora thrive, we can, too. But when it is impaired or imbalanced, we become more prone to acute health problems IBS and other digestive problems, allergies and asthma, urinary tract and yeast infections, hormonal imbalance, obesity, and many others. The good news is, there are many ways to support your intestinal flora, including probiotic supplements. But when looking for the best probiotics the choices can be overwhelming €” so let€™s talk about what you need to know.
The flora in your GI tract €” it€™s a jungle in there! Scientists estimate that a healthy woman€™s body is inhabited by 750 trillion bacteria, yeast, and other microorganisms, mostly colonizing the GI tract. These microflora make up three to five pounds of your total body weight, and their genes are estimated to outnumber your own by about a hundredfold! There is ample surface area for these microbes to colonize in your GI tract, but competition for real estate is high. Through a process of €œcompetitive exclusion,€ your body determines which bacteria take up residence. There are complex differences among the...Read more

Iron Bacteria :

In the management of water-supply  wells, iron bacteria are bacteria  that derive the energy they need to live and multiply by oxidizing dissolved  ferrous iron (or the less frequently available manganese). The resulting ferric oxide is insoluble, and appears as brown gelatinous slime that will stain plumbing fixtures, and clothing or utensils washed with the water carrying it. They are known to grow and proliferate in waters containing as low as 0.1mg/l of iron. However, at least 0.3 ppm of dissolved oxygen is needed to carry out oxidation. Common effects of excess iron in water are a reddish-brown color, stained laundry and poor tasting coffee. An equally common but less well understood problem is infestation of water supplies with iron bacteria. Iron bacteria are a natural part of the environment in most parts of the world. These microorganisms combine dissolved iron or manganese with oxygen and use it to form...Read more

Staphylococcus Bacteria :

Staphylococcus  bacteria is bacteria in the Staphylococcus genus, a very common bacterial genus which is very widely distributed throughout the world, making it a familiar sight in doctors offices and labs. In fact, you are hosting a few Staphylococcus  species right this very minute, because these bacteria  are part of the body's natural bacterial fauna. The most famous Staphylococcus species is probably S. aureus, the bacterium responsible for the well known €œstaph€ infections which plague people of all...Read more

Agar Bacteria :

With its distinctive smell, one can easily distinguish agar  from the other materials commonly found in a laboratory. Chemically, agar is a polymer made up of subunits of the sugar galactose, and is a component of the cell walls of several species of red algae that are usually harvested in eastern Asia and California. Dissolved in boiling water and cooled, laboratory agar looks gelatinous. Although agar's chief use is as a culture medium for various microorganisms, particularly for bacteria, its other less well-known uses include serving as a thickening for soups and sauces, in jellies and ice cream, in cosmetics, for clarifying beverages, and for sizing fabrics. One might ask why agar, as opposed to regular gelatin (like that found in Jello), is used for culturing bacteria. The answer is agar, unlike gelatin, won't be degraded (eaten) by bacteria. Also, agar is firmer and stronger than gelatin. It's still possible, however, to use gelatin as a culture medium for bacteria if agar is...Read more

Helicobacter Pylori Bacteria :

Helicobacter Pylori Bacteria: Learn how the new prebiotic soluble fibers benefit bowel health and many GI disorders. This unusual name identifies a specific bacteria that can cause infection of the stomach. This infection can contribute to the development of diseases, such as dyspepsia (heartburn, bloating and nausea), gastritis (inflammation of the stomach), and ulcers in the stomach and duodenum. It will be useful to know some things about the upper digestive tract to understand how and where Helicobacter pylori infection can occur. When food is swallowed, it passes through the esophagus (the tube that connects the throat to the stomach). It then enters the larger upper part of the stomach. A strong acid that helps to break down the food is secreted in the stomach. The narrower, lower part of the stomach is...Read more

Tuberculosis Bacteria :

Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria whose scientific name is Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It was first isolated in 1882 by a German physician named Robert Koch who received the Nobel prize for this discovery. TB most commonly affects the lungs but also can involve almost any organ of the body. Many years ago, this disease was referred to as "consumption" because without effective treatment, these patients often would waste away. Today, of course, tuberculosis usually can be treated successfully with antibiotics. There is also a group of organisms referred to...Read more

MRSA Bacteria :

MRSA stands for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) bacteria. This organism is known for causing skin infections in addition to many other types of infections. There are other designations in the scientific literature for these bacteria according to where the bacteria are acquired by patients, such as community-acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA), hospital-acquired or health-care-acquired MRSA (HA-MRSA), or epidemic MRSA (EMRSA). A number of Web and popular press articles are titled or include the erroneous term "MRSA virus." This is a misnomer; there is no contagious MRSA virus, and if...Read more

Probiotic Bacteria :

Our intestinal tract is filled with an enormous number of helpful bacteria called probiotic bacteria. They are called probiotic bacteria because the term "probiotic" means "for life," as opposed to the term "antibiotic" which means "against life." Our bodies are actually designed to have a symbiotic relationships with these probiotic bacteria. They help us digest our food, kill harmful microorganisms and keep us functioning properly in a number of ways. As we look into the intestinal tract we find that there are only a few probiotic bacteria in the stomach because it is highly acidic. However, the further down the intestinal tract we move, the number of these good bacteria increases dramatically with the biggest numbers being found in the large intestine. We need to have a large population of probiotic bacteria to aid with...Read more

Strep Bacteria :

Streptococcus bacteria  is a genus of coccus, or spherelike, Gram-positive, chained bacteria belonging to the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) group. Individual streptococcus cells may be round or ovoid and all lack the enzyme catylase. Because these cells divide along a single plane, streptococci occur in pairs or in chains. Like many other types of bacteria in the firmicute phylum, streptococcus bacteria stains dark blue or violet when subject to Gram staining due to the composition of its cell wall. This is what is meant by Gram-positive. As a member of the lactic acid bacteria group, streptococcus bacteria is resistant to acidic conditions and thrives on no oxygen or levels of oxygen below the...Read more

Bacteria Media :

A growth medium or culture medium is a liquid or gel designed to support the growth of microorganisms  or cells , or small plants  like the moss  Physcomitrella patens. There are different types of media for growing different types of cells. There are two major types of growth media: those used for cell culture, which use specific cell types derived from plants or animals, and microbiological culture, which are used for growing microorganisms, such as bacteria or yeast. The most common growth media for microorganisms are nutrient broths and agar plates; specialized media are sometimes required for microorganism and cell culture growth. Some organisms, termed fastidious organisms, require specialized environments due to complex nutritional requirements. Viruses, for example, are obligate intracellular parasites and require a...Read more

Staph Bacteria :

Staph infections caused by species of bacteria from the genus Staphylococcus  are relatively common and generally not dangerous to humans, but some types of staph bacteria, like those which have been found in recent studies at state beaches and in samples taken from the ocean, can pose a much greater threat. Staphylococcus Bacteria. The genus name Staphylococcus originates from the Greek and can be roughly translated as €œbunch of grapes,€ which describes the bacteria€™s appearance when looked at under a microscope. There are more than 30 described species in the genus Staphylococcus, including S. aureus. It is believed that as much as 20 percent of the population is a carrier of S. aureus. In most cases, the
bacteria are...Read more

Pond Bacteria: Pond Bacteria should be staple of any pond owner€™s maintenance program.  Pond Keeper Pond Bacteria products contain naturally occurring strains of beneficial bacteria that are a safe, natural way to keep ponds healthy, clean and clear. We offer several varieties of sludge reducing pond bacteria along with a professional strength start-up bacteria for new ponds containing two strains of nitrifying bacteria to help cycle new ponds and reduce ammonia and nitrites. All of the sludge reducing Pond Keeper Pond Bacteria products offer the following benefits:...Read more

Chlamydia Bacteria :

Chlamydia is a genus of bacteria  that are obligate intracellular parasites (organisms).Chlamydia infections are the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections in humans and are the leading cause of infectious blindness worldwide. The three Chlamydia species include Chlamydia trachomatis (a human pathogen), Chlamydia suis (affects only swine), and Chlamydia muridarum (affects only mice and hamsters). Prior to 1999, the Chlamydia genus also included the species that are presently in the genus Chlamydophila: Two clinically relevant species, Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Chlamydophila psittaci were moved to the Chlamydophila genus.
Physiology: Chlamydia are unusual bacteria - unusual enough that they were originally classified as...Read more

Septic Bacteria :

Bacteria In Septic Systems: There are many different types of bacteria that occur naturally in a septic system. Those present in the septic tank help to process waste and organic matter. This is the first stage of waste treatment. Liquid that has been partially treated in the tank is called effluent. Effluent entering the drain field is then treated while passing through the biomat. The biomat is a naturally occurring tar-like substance that forms on the bottoms and sides of the drain field trenches. It is made up of living anaerobic (existing without oxygen) bacteria, which feed on organic matter in the effluent. As the biomat matures it grows thicker, slowing down the flow of effluent to the surrounding soil. As the effluent passes through the biomat pathogenic organisms and viruses are removed. On the outside of the trench, beyond the biomat where the soil is not saturated, are living colonies of aerobic (existing with oxygen) bacteria. These aerobic bacteria colonies feed...Read more
Bacteria Detection: Bacteria  detection is a technique which is used to identify the types of bacteria present in an area or on an object. Historically, bacteria  detection could only be accomplished by taking a sample, culturing the sample, and then examining it under a microscope to identify the bacteria. This was a time-consuming process, and occasionally the presence of certain bacteria was missed, because these bacteria were not picked up in the sample. Modern bacteria  detection techniques work in a variety of ways, and many are very...Read more

UV Bacteria :

Biocidal Action of UV Light: Ultraviolet light kills bacteria by penetrating cells to damage deoxyribonucleic acid, commonly called DNA. DNA is the genetic material that holds the instructions for cell reproduction and function. UV light damages DNA by knocking electrons around and disrupting the chemical bonds that hold the DNA molecule's atoms together. Bacteria can repair DNA damage, but when the damage is massive, as is the case after a high dose of UV radiation, the cell dies before the damage can be repaired. A short exposure to UV light is not enough to kill a large population of bacteria. A moderate dose will kill many, cause permanent DNA mutations in some and leave others unharmed...Read more

Bacteria Meningitis :

Bacterial meningitis is a serious infection of the fluid in the spinal cord and the fluid that surrounds the brain. Bacterial meningitis is most commonly caused by one of three types of bacteria: Haemophilus influenzae type b, Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria.  The bacteria are spread by direct close contact with the discharges from the nose or throat of an infected person. Bacterial meningitis can be treated with antibiotics. Prevention depends on use of vaccines, rapid diagnosis, and prompt treatment of close personal contacts...Read more

Identifying Bacteria :

Bacteria - Identifying And Classifying Bacteria: The most fundamental technique for classifying bacteria is the gram stain, developed in 1884 by Danish scientist Christian Gram. It is called a differential stain because it differentiates among bacteria and can be used to distinguish among them, based on differences in their cell wall. In this procedure, bacteria are first stained with crystal violet, then treated with a mordant€”a solution that fixes the stain inside the cell (e.g., iodine-KI mixture). The bacteria are then...Read more

Fecal Bacteria :

Members of two bacteria groups, coliforms and fecal streptococci, are used to test for contamination from sewage. These bacteria are called "fecal" indicators because they live in the intestinal track of humans and animals and are found in human and animal feces. The fecal indicators themselves are not harmful, but because they live in the same portion of the digestive system where disease-causing microorganisms occur, the presence of these fecal bacteria in a water sample indicates that water might contain microorganisms harmful to human health. Very high levels of fecal bacteria...Read more

Friendly Bacteria :

What is Friendly Bacteria? Friendly  bacteria, also known as probiotic  or commensal bacteria, are bacteria which confer some sort of positive health benefit on their host. These bacteria live on or in the body of their host, and in some cases, they are actually critical to well-being. Scientists are constantly learning more about friendly bacteria and their functions in the body, and they've made some surprising discoveries about the ways in which these bacteria  work...Read more

Colon Bacteria :

Colon Bacteria: When we are talking about fighting off colon bacteria, we are not talking about the good colon bacteria. We are talking about the colon bacteria that leads to infections in the colon. The truth of the matter is this, there are tons of different bacteria living in your colon at any given time. However, most of  that bacteria is there to help fight off infections. Every now and again, you can get infections in your colon that are not so helpful. Thus, today we are going to talk about some healthy ways to get rid of that bad bacteria and leave the good bacteria. After all, there are some methods that you can use that are not natural, and it kills off all bacteria in your colon and that is not good. First of all, we should talk about something that you...Read more

Lactobacillus Bacteria :

any of a group of rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-spore-forming bacteria of the family Lactobacillaceae. Similar to other genera in the family, Lactobacillus  are characterized by their ability to produce lactic acid as a by-product of glucose metabolism. The organisms are widely distributed in animal feeds, silage, manure, and milk and milk products. Various species of Lactobacillus are used commercially during the production of sour milks, cheeses, and yogurt, and they have an important role in the manufacture of fermented vegetables (pickles and sauerkraut), beverages (wine and juices), sourdough breads, and some sausages. Lactobacillus are generally nonmotile and can survive in both aerobic and anaerobic environments. L. delbrueckii, the type species of the genus, is 0.5 to 0.8 micrometre (μm; 1 μm = 10ˆ’6 metre) across by 2 to 9 μm long and occurs singly or in small chains. Examples of other well-characterized Lactobacillus species include...Read more

Flu Bacteria: :

Flu Jab for Bacteria: Viruses can wreak havoc on bacteria as well as humans and, just like us, bacteria have their own defence system in place, explains Professor John van der Oost, at the Society for General Microbiology's spring meeting. Uncovering the workings of the bacterial "immune system" could be used to keep industrial microbes at peak performance...Read more

Mold Bacteria: :

Mold Bacteria FAQs:
Mold & Bacteria FAQ's
What Is Mold?
Mold is the name given to a large variety of fungal growths that require moisture and organic matter to feed upon. No one knows how many species of fungi exist but estimates range from tens of thousands to perhaps three hundred thousand or more. The most common varieties found inside our homes include: Alternaria, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Penicillium and Rhodotorula. High relative humidities are required for germination and growth while lower humidities tend to increase the release of mold spores as a method for self preservation.
Where Can Mold Be Found?
In our homes mold can be found virtually anywhere including basements, kitchens, bathrooms, closets, clothing, carpeting, wallpaper, wall cavities, furniture, plants, food, etc. Mold can also develop in standing water such as improperly maintained humidifiers or condensation trays. Mold often flourishes in areas where it can not be seen which is why so many people suffer from...Read more

Bacteria Petri Dish :

Growing Bacteria in Petri Dishes: This activity will prove that Mom was right, "Wash your hands with soap and warm water!" A Petri dish prepared with nutrient agar (a seaweed derivitive with beef nutrients) is an ideal food source for the bacteria you'll be growing. In this experiment, Steve Spangler collected samples from items around the office - you will not believe what he found...Read more

C Diff Bacteria :

Clostridium difficile (Greek kloster (κλωστήρ), spindle, and Latin  difficile,[1]  difficult), also known as "CDF/cdf", or "C. diff", is a species of Gram-positive bacteria  of the genus Clostridium that causes diarrhea and other intestinal disease when competing bacteria are wiped out by antibiotics. Clostridia are anaerobic, spore-forming rods (bacilli).[2] C. difficile is the most serious cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and can lead to pseudomembranous colitis, a severe infection of the colon, often resulting from eradication of the normal gut flora by antibiotics.[3] The C. difficile bacteria, which naturally reside in the body, become overpopulated: The overpopulation is harmful because the bacterium releases toxins that can...Read more

Mycoplasma Bacteria :

Mycoplasma is a genus of bacteria which lack a cell wall.[1]  Without a cell wall, they are unaffected by many common antibiotics such as penicillin  or other beta-lactam antibiotics that target cell wall synthesis. They can be parasitic or saprotrophic. Several species are pathogenic  in humans, including M. pneumoniae, which is an important cause of atypical pneumonia and other respiratory disorders, and M. genitalium, which is believed to be involved in pelvic inflammatory
diseases...Read more

Tongue Bacteria :

For most cases of uncomplicated halitosis, the root cause can be summed up in two words: tongue bacteria. Though it might be hard to believe, most of that bad smell comes from the back of your tongue where many organisms are thriving in the warm moist airless conditions. Mouths are full of bacteria. This is normal: from the time of our birth, bacteria are getting into our mouths in food, on other objects, on hands, in water, even in the air that we take in when we breath through the mouth. Some of the bacteria that get in don't survive,...Read more

Healthy Bacteria :

Probiotics: The Healthy Bacteria: American consumers have become familiar with products such as soap or hand sanitizer, which are designed to kill bacteria. But did you realize there are foods on the market now that not only contain bacteria, but tout their health benefits? The next time you visit the grocery store or thumb through a magazine you might notice products claiming to "help strengthen the body's defenses," "help naturally regulate your digestive system" or "help kids stay healthy." Manufacturers can make these claims because of specific bacteria the products contain. You might have heard that "live and active cultures" in yogurt are helpful. What you might not know is these live and active cultures contain bacteria called 'probiotics' that may work together with substances found in common foods called 'prebiotics.' Studies suggest that...Read more

UTI Bacteria :

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection  that affects any part of the urinary tract. The main cause agent is Escherichia coli. Although urine contains a variety of fluids, salts, and waste products, it does not usually have bacteria in it.  When bacteria get into the bladder or kidney and multiply in the urine, they may cause a UTI. The most common type of UTI is acute cystitis often referred to as a bladder infection. An infection of the upper urinary tract or kidney is known as pyelonephritis, and is potentially more serious. Although they cause discomfort, urinary tract infections can usually be easily treated with a short course of antibiotics. Symptoms include...Read more

Teeth Bacteria: :

Bacteria and Tooth Decay:  Bacteria and tooth decay is one of the most common of all disorders, second only to the common cold. It usually occurs in children and young adults but can affect any person. It is the leading cause of tooth loss in younger people.  Bacteria is normally present in the mouth. This bacteria converts all foods-especially sugar and starch-into acids. Bacteria, acid, food debris and saliva combine in the mouth to form a sticky substance called plaque that adheres to the teeth. It is most prominent on the grooved chewing surfaces of back molars, just above the gum line on all teeth and at the edges of fillings. Plaque that is not removed from the teeth mineralizes into tartar. Plaque and tartar irritate the gums, resulting in gingivitis and ultimately periodontitis. The acids in plaque dissolve the enamel surface of the tooth and create holes in the tooth which is called cavities. Cavities are usually painless until they grow very large inside the internal structures of the tooth (the dentin and the pulp at the core) and can cause death of the nerve and blood vessels in the tooth. If left untreated a tooth...Read more

Wastewater Bacteria :

Sewage treatment, or domestic wastewater treatment, is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater  and household sewage, both runoff (effluents) and domestic. It includes physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove physical, chemical and biological contaminants. Its objective is to produce a waste stream (or treated effluent) and a solid waste or sludge suitable for discharge or reuse back into the environment. This material is often inadvertently contaminated with many toxic organic and inorganic compounds...Read more

Vaginal Bacteria Infection :

Can a vaginal bacterial infection be caused from your spouse having intercourse with other women?...Read more

Syphilis Bacteria: Syphilis :

Once the cause of devastating epidemics, syphilis now can be effectively controlled with antibiotics. Although syphilis remains a significant health problem in the United States, the number of cases reported nationally and in Illinois during 1998 was the lowest in any year since the mid 1960s. Preventing syphilis is especially important because persons infected with the disease are at increased risk for acquiring and transmitting HIV, the virus that causes AIDS. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in collaboration with state and local health departments and with affected communities, is launching a national campaign to eliminate syphilis in the United States. This goal is within reach for two...Read more

Legionella Bacteria :

Legionella is a Gram negative bacterium, including species that cause legionellosis  or Legionnaires' disease, most notably L. pneumophila.[1][2]  It may be readily visualized with a silver stain. Legionella is common in many environments, with at least 50 species and 70 serogroups identified. The side-chains of the cell wall carry the bases responsible for the somatic antigen specificity of these organisms. The chemical composition of these side chains both with respect to components as well as arrangement of the different sugars determines the nature of the somatic or O antigen determinants, which are essential means of serologically classifying many Gram-negative bacteria. Legionella acquired its name after a...Read more

Bacteria Overgrowth: :

What is small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO)?
The small bowel, also known as the small intestine, is the section of the gastrointestinal tract that connects the stomach with the colon. The main purpose of the small intestine is to digest and absorb food into the body. The small intestine is approximately 21 feet in length and begins in the duodenum (into which food from the stomach empties), followed by the jejunum, and then the ileum (which empties the food that has not been digested into the large intestine or colon).The entire gastrointestinal tract, including the small intestine, normally contains bacteria. The number of bacteria is greatest in the...Read more

Candida Bacteria :

Candida, Bacteria and Probiotics: A topic of debate between holistic and allopathic health care systems, candida is often named as a factor in allergies, fatigue and low energy, rash, sore throat, compromised immune system, indigestion, acid reflux, gas or bloating, and more. Dietary changes, probiotics and cleansing can be helpful in cleansing candida out of the body and restoring the bacteria of the gut to healthy balance...Read more

Gardnerella Bacteria :

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is characterized by the overgrowth of certain bacteria in the vagina, including Gardnerella vaginalis, Gardneralla mobiluncus, and Mycoplasma hominis. Bacterial vaginosis is often underdiagnosed because many women assume they have a yeast infection and treat symptoms with over-the-counter medications.Incidence and Prevalence. Bacterial vaginosis accounts for 60% of vulvovaginal infections. Young adult women, particularly those who are sexually active, are most commonly affected. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), BV is the most common vaginal infection in women who are of childbearing age. In the...Read more

Digestive Bacteria :

What Are the Different Types of Digestive Bacteria?
There are many types of bacteria  found in a person€™s digestive tract. Some are digestive  bacteria that aid in the process of digestion and help to ensure good health. Other types of bacteria may take up residence in the digestive tract and cause health problems. Among the types of bacteria that are found in the digestive tract are Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Escherichia...Read more

Dental Bacteria :

Oral Bacteria & Dental Caries: These prokaryotes  (particularly Gram-positive  bacteria such as Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces spp.) exist in oral biofilms; the sticky, slimy coating in the mouth that is most noticeable before brushing away that bad morning breath.
What Is Plaque?
Dental plaque is a biofilm of material that adheres to, and can build up on, teeth; a living slime layer made of millions of bacterial cells, salivary polymers, and bacterial wastes and other extracellular products. Unchecked, this...Read more

Molecular Genetics Of Bacteria :

Refer this link for browsing Molecular Genetics Of Bacteria

Tooth Bacteria: Plaque is a film of bacteria and mucous that grows on your teeth. Some of the bacteria in the plaque make acids which decay your teeth. Other kinds of bacteria in the plaque make toxins which cause gum disease. The easiest and most effective way to remove the plaque from your teeth is to brush and floss. Those costly rinses just don't do it! When the plaque is hardened on your teeth it is called tartar or calculus. Then you need a Dental Hygienist or Dentist to remove it by "scaling" the tartar off...Read more

STD Bacteria :

Bacterial vaginosis (BV)  is the name of a condition in women where the normal balance of bacteria in the vagina is disrupted and replaced by an overgrowth of certain bacteria.  It is sometimes accompanied by discharge, odor, pain, itching, or burning...Read more

Infectious Bacteria :

An infectious disease is a clinically evident illness resulting from the presence of pathogenic microbial agents, including pathogenic viruses, pathogenic bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular parasites, and aberrant proteins known as prions. These pathogens are able to cause disease in animals and/or plants. Infectious pathologies are also called communicable diseases or transmissible diseases due to their potential of transmission from one person or species to another by a replicating agent (as opposed to a toxin).
Read More

Intestinal bacteria
Intestinal bacteria- Antibiotics kill it all off - The chemical drugs so freely prescribed by practitioners of allopathic medicine relieve the overt symptoms of disease, particularly pain, but do nothing to eliminate the root causes which often lie hidden far from the symptoms. In the process of killing the bacteria for which they are prescribed, they also kill off all the friendly lactobacteria in your intestines, severely impairing digestion and assimilation of nutrients at a time when your body needs them most.
Read More

Iron Bacteria
In the management of water-supply wells, iron bacteria are bacteria that derive the energy they need to live and multiply by oxidizing dissolved ferrous iron (or the less frequently available manganese). The resulting ferric oxide is insoluble, and appears as brown gelatinous slime that will stain plumbing fixtures, and clothing or utensils washed with the water carrying it. They are known to grow and proliferate in waters containing as low as 0.1mg/l of iron. However, at least 0.3 ppm of dissolved oxygen is needed to carry out oxidation.
Read More

Ocean Bacteria

A remarkable species of cyanobacteria possessing a unique nitrogen fixation adaptation has recently been discovered in the open ocean, report researchers writing in the November 14th issue of Science.

“Fixation” is the process by which bacteria convert ambient sources of otherwise unusable molecules into compounds necessary for life. Previous to the discovery, carbon was thought of as a necessary accompaniment during fixation because the conversion of carbon dioxide into sugars through photosynthesis provides the necessary energy source for cyanobacteria. It is still unclear how this new species produces its own food, although many microbiologists strongly suspect that a mutually beneficial partnership may exist between the new cyanobacteria and another organism.
Read More

If you were a marine biologist and hoped to learn how to protect coral reefs, whales and other “ocean celebrities,” you’d need to study bacteria.
With the help of powerful microscopes and genetic-code readers, researchers are finding more and more big jobs managed by ocean microorganisms. For example, new research shows that bacteria help coral reefs remain healthy.
Scientists studying the chemistry of ocean life also found bacteria that break down the protective coating on the hard and beautiful skeletons of tiny water creatures called diatoms. Once the coatings are eaten away, the diatom skeletons dissolve back into the water. This skeleton recycling process is important for the growth of future generations of diatoms.
Read More

Peanut Butter Bacteria
Earlier Friday, nutritional-supplement retailer General Nutrition Centers Inc. said Friday it is voluntarily recalling its Triflex Peanut Butter Soft Chews. At the same time, Supreme Protein Inc. said it is voluntarily recalling certain lots of its Supreme Protein Peanut Butter Crunch Bars and Caramel Nut Bars because they contain peanut paste which may have been exposed to salmonella bacteria at a Georgia manufacturing facility.
Read More

Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria
The ability of a few soil microorganisms to convert insoluble forms of phosphorus to an accessible form is an important trait in plant growth-promoting bacteria for increasing plant yields. The use of phosphate solubilizing bacteria as inoculants increases the P uptake by plants. In this study, isolation, screening and characterization of 36 strains of phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) from Central Taiwan were carried out. Mineral phosphate solubilizing (MPS) activities of all isolates were tested on tricalcium phosphate medium by analyzing the soluble-P content after 72 h of incubation at 30 °C. Identification and phylogenetic analysis of 36 isolates were carried out by 16S rDNA sequencing. Ten isolates belonged to genus Bacillus, nine to genus Rhodococcus, seven to genus Arthrobacter, six to genus Serratia and one each to genera Chryseobacterium, Delftia, Gordonia and Phyllobacterium. In addition, four s
Read More

The main symptoms of bacterial vaginosis are a fishy odor, plus a grayish or yellowish discharge from the vagina. Bacterial vaginosis can also cause an itching or burning sensation that can be very annoying for the woman who is experiencing it. Fortunately, there are several different remedies for bacterial vaginosis. If you suspect that you have BV, here are the steps that you need to take in order to get rid of it.
First, see a doctor. While bacterial vaginosis is generally not harmful, it is not something that you want to live with either. And don’t worry about being embarrassed. Doctors know that BV and the odor that accompanies it are not caused by poor hygiene. If the doctor suspects that you have bacterial vaginosis, he or she will take a sample of the discharge and analyze it to see what type of bacteria is overgrowing. The doctor will then prescribe you an antibiotic that is intended to kill off this harmful bacteria.
Read More

Serratia Airborne Bacteria
Serratia bacteria is a well-known nosocomial pathogen that is present in hospitals and in environments with high humidity such as the sinks and bathrooms of ordinary homes. When people who are in a weakened physical state inhale airborne water droplets which contain this bacteria, it can lead to respiratory infections and diseases such as pneumonia.
Now, tests performed in a chamber having a volume of 40 m3 in a laboratory leveled Bio-Safety Level 3*5 to handle airborne microorganisms, virus experiments, and the like, confirm that when serratia bacteria were dispersed in the chamber and the change in concentration measured when Plasmacluster Ions were released into the space, 99% of the bacteria were eliminated in 38 minutes (Figure 1).
Read More

Skin Bacteria in Moist Places
The skin flora are the microorganisms which reside on the skin. Most research has been upon those that reside upon the 2 square meters of human skin. Many of them are bacteria of which there are around 1000 species upon human skin from 19 phyla.[1][2] The total number of bacteria on an average human has been estimated at 1012 (1,000,000,000,000).[3] Most are found in the superficial layers of the epidermis and the upper parts of hair follicles.
Read More

Stomach Bacteria
Bacteria that are not killed by acid, that in fact love to live in an acidic environment, is Helicobacter pylori. As you can imagine they live in the stomach which is their natural niche. However, most bacteria do not like acidity and will suffer. So how can so many infectious organisms pass the stomach? first of all, you should know that the acidity of the stomach is not constant. A full stomach, just after a big meal, finished with a huge glass of milk may be hardly acidic, and is nothing compared to an empty, hungry stomach, ready for food.
Read More

Urine Bacteria
Do you feel a strong and sudden need to urinate sometimes? Well, if this is the case, you might be suffering from a urinary tract infection, which is an urge incontinence that involves a strong, sudden need to urinate, chasing behind the bladder contraction that result in leakage and normally caused by bacteria in the urine. Urinary tract infections are also known as UTI. Most commonly such effects as Urinary urgency, regular urination in day time and night, instinctive loss of urine and burning feeling are experienced.
Read More

Vaginal Bacteria
In the United States, vaginal infections are one of the most common reasons women see their doctor, accounting for more than 10 million visits each year. Vaginal infections can cause discomfort, discharge, and vaginal odor. However, these symptoms do not necessarily indicate an infection. Instead, they may result from irritation of the vagina by chemicals or other materials such as hygiene products, bubble bath, laundry detergents, contraceptive foams and jellies, and synthetic underwear. The inflammation that results is called noninfectious vaginitis.
Read More

Vaginosis Bacteria
It is estimated, 1 in 3 women will probably get bacterial vaginosis at some time in their life. Once you have had one infection, you are more likely to have a repeat infection.
Bacterial vaginosis occurs when the acidity of the vagina changes, causes of this may include: -
• Sex without a condom, when semen enters the vagina.
• Using too many perfumed soaps or bubble baths.
• Douching (washing out your vagina).
• Using the coil / I.U.D.
Read More

Yogurt Bacteria
Yoghurt or yogurt is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. Fermentation of lactose produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yoghurt its texture and its characteristic tang. Dairy yoghurt is produced using a culture of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus salivarius subsp. thermophilus bacteria. The milk is
Read More

he origins of yogurt lie in the isolated Caucasus mountains of Russia, but to-day this milk product has a prominent place in the dairy case of most grocery stores. Yogurt was one of the first foods that was promoted widely because of its possible health benefits. In 1908 E. Metchnikov wrote in his book ‘The Prolongation of Life’ that the secret to longevity that he found in the Russian mountains was the yogurt that the people were making and eating. Since that time, many people have questioned the scientific validity of this conclusion, but the advent of probiotics has changed that. There is a growing body of evidence that probiotics or foods that contain live bacteria are good for the health.
Read More

Pylori Bacteria
Helicobacter pylori bacteria is a type of harmful microorganism that can infect the stomach and cause such diseases as peptic ...more »
• Helicobacter pylori bacteria: A bacteria that can infect the gastrointestinal system.
Causes of Helicobacter pylori bacteria: see causes of Helicobacter pylori bacteria
Risk factors for Helicobacter pylori bacteria: see risk factors for Helicobacter pylori bacteria
Read More

H. pylori is a type of bacteria—a germ that may cause infection. H. pylori infection is common, particularly in developing countries, and often begins in childhood. Symptoms usually don’t occur until adulthood, although most people never have any symptoms.
H. pylori causes more than half of peptic ulcers worldwide.2 The bacterium causes peptic ulcers by damaging the mucous coating that protects the stomach and duodenum. Damage to the mucous coating allows powerful stomach acid to get through to the sensitive lining beneath. Together, the stomach acid and H. pylori irritate the lining of the stomach or duodenum and cause an ulcer.
Read More

Bacteria Test
Through the early part of the twentieth century, there appeared to be a general feeling that the same battery of observations and tests could be used to characterize and identify any kind of bacterium. But as different, “exotic” types of bacteria were discovered, it was found that they would tend not to grow in the standard test media nor even in the usual conditions of incubation. Obligate parasites and strict anaerobes were among the emerging groups of bacteria needing special methods for growth and characterization. By the 1930s, a standard descriptive chart was developed for uniformity in recording the characteristics
Read More

Re: What is the best way to test for bacteria around my high school?

This is certainly something that can be easily done. You are going to need 2 things. First, you need some petri dishes with culture medium so that the bacteria can grow. There is no single medium on which every bacteria will grow, but some good all purpose medium like Nutrient agar will do well and allow many different bacterial species to grow fine.The second thing you will need is something to take your samples. This can be little swatches of cloth or... Read More

H Pylori Bacteria

Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that can inhabit various areas of the stomach, paticularly the antrum. It causes a chronic low-level inflammation of the stomach lining and is strongly linked to the development of duodenal and gastric ulcers and stomach cancer. Over 80% of individuals infected with the bacterium are asymptomatic.
Read More

The bacteria H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori) usually don’t cause problems in childhood. However, if left untreated the bacteria can lead to digestive illnesses, including gastritis (the irritation and inflammation of the lining of the stomach), peptic ulcer disease (characterized by sores that form in the stomach or the upper part of the small intestine, called the duodenum), and even stomach cancer later in life.

These bacteria are found worldwide, but especially in developing countries, where up to 10% of children and 80% of adults can have laboratory evidence of an H. pylori infection — usually without having symptoms.
Read More

Bacteria Vaginosis

Bacterial Vaginosis, also known as BV and vaginal bacteriosis is one of the most common causes of infection in the female reproductive system. Very often, this medical condition is confused with other vaginal infections like candidiasis (yeast infection) or trichomoniasis (infection caused by Trichomonas vaginalis.) However, the two aforementioned conditions are not bacteria-based, and therefore do not qualify as Bacterial Vaginosis or BV. In physiology, a woman’s genital area has a healthy supply of naturally occurring bacterial flora that helps fend off unwanted foreign and potentially harmful bacteria. An imbalance of any kind (too much or too little) can result in BV. This condition is not a sexually transmitted disease; but it does tend to target women in their child bearing years.
Read More

Bacterial vaginosis is vaginal condition that can produce vaginal discharge and results from an overgrowth of normal bacteria in the vagina. In the past, the condition was called Gardnerella vaginitis, after the bacteria that were thought to cause the condition. However, the newer name, bacterial vaginosis, reflects the fact that there are a number of species of bacteria that naturally live in
Read More

Helicobacter Bacteria

Helicobacter pylori bacteria is a type of harmful microorganism that can infect the stomach and cause such diseases as peptic ulcer and gastritis. An infection of Helicobacter pylori bacteria can also increase the risk of developing stomach cancer.
An infection of Helicobacter pylori bacteria is a very common condition. It is believed that infections of Helicobacter pylori bacteria may be contagious. Infections of Helicobacter pylori bacteria often run in families.
Read More

Helicobacter pylori bacteria is a type of harmful microorganism that can infect the stomach and cause such diseases as peptic ...more »
• Helicobacter pylori bacteria: A bacteria that can infect the gastrointestinal system.
Read More

Vaginal Bacteria

* Few women are comfortable talking about vaginal health openly, leading to misinformation, misdiagnosis and potentially ineffective treatments. But researchers at the University of Idaho (UI) are helping to increase understanding about normal vaginal biology so that women can better identify conditions that make them prone to infections and other diseases.

Vaginitis is a condition that occurs in the vagina causing vaginal discharge, inflammation, and irritation, as well as vulvar or vaginal itching. The three most common vaginal infections and diseases are also the most frequent causes of vaginitis. The three common vaginal infections include:
Read More

Several different organisms can cause vaginal discharge and irritation (vaginitis). The most common organisms being :-
• The bacteria gardnerella vaginalis (bacterial vaginosis).
• The yeast candida (that causes thrush).
• The parasite, trichomonas vaginalis.
Bacterial vaginosis is a very common vaginal infection. It occurs when bacteria that normally exist in small numbers in the vagina multiply rapidly. Bacterial infection tends to occur in women who have regular sex. The infection does not get passed on to the man.
Read More

Intestinal Bacteria


If you are not actively replenishing your intestinal bacteria after a dose of antibiotics, both with supplements and contributing foods, you indirectly are providing to the recurrence of future health problems. An intestinal tract devoid of proper friendly intestinal bacteria is breeding ground for future illness.
Lactobacteria are the only elements in the body which keep candida and other harmful yeast infections under control, so whenever you take a course of antibiotics, candida have a field day and spread like wildfire throughout your system.
Read More

The entire gastrointestinal tract, including the small intestine, normally contains bacteria. The number of bacteria is greatest in the colon (at least 1,000,000,000 bacteria per milliliter (ml) of fluid) and much lower in the small intestine (less than 10,000 bacteria per ml of fluid). Moreover, the types of bacteria within the small intestine are different than the types of bacteria within the colon. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) refers to a condition in which abnormally large numbers of bacteria (at least 100,000 bacteria per ml of fluid) are present in the small intestine and the types of bacteria in the small intestine resemble more the bacteria of the colon than the small intestine.
Read More

Iron Bacteria

The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed):
• Iron bacteria
This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. If the file has been modified from its original state, some details may not fully reflect the modified file.
Read More

Common effects of excess iron in water are a reddish-brown color, stained laundry and poor tasting coffee. An equally common but less well understood problem is infestation of water supplies with iron bacteria. Iron bacteria are a natural part of the environment in Wisconsin and most other parts of the world. These microorganisms combine dissolved iron or manganese with oxygen and use it to form rust-colored deposits. In the process, the bacteria produce a brown slime that builds up on well screens, pipes, and plumbing fixtures.
Read More

Staphylococcus Bacteria
Staphylococcus, staphylē, “bunch of grapes” and κόκκος, kókkos, “granule”) is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. Under the microscope they appear round (cocci), and form in grape-like clusters.
The Staphylococcus genus includes thirty-two species and eight sub-species. Most are harmless and reside normally on the skin and mucous membranes of humans
Read More

Staphylococci (‘staph’) are a common type of bacteria that live on the skin and mucous membranes (eg. in nose) of humans. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the most important of these bacteria in human diseases. Other staphylococci, including S. epidermidis, are considered commensals, or normal inhabitants of the skin surface.
About 15-40 per cent of healthy humans are carriers of S. aureus, that is, they have the bacteria on their skin without any active infection or disease (colonisation). The carrier sites are usually the nostrils and fexures, where the bacteria may be found intermittently or every time they are looked for.
Read More

Agar Bacteria
An agar plate is a Petri dish that contains a growth medium (typically agar plus nutrients) used to culture microorganisms or small plants like the moss Physcomitrella patens.
Selective growth compounds may also be added to the media, such as antibiotics.[1]
Individual microorganisms placed on the plate will grow into individual colonies, each a clone genetically identical to the individual ancestor organism (except for the low, unavoidable rate of mutation). Thus, the plate can be used either to estimate the concentration of organisms in a liquid culture or a suitable dilution of that culture using a colony counter,
Read More

Agar is a compound that is derived from algae. It contains many nutrients, and bacteria can thrive on it. It is gelatinous, and is created by mixing powdered agar with water and adding heat. This serves to sterilize the surface and makes it a thick liquid. After this liquid is poured into sterile Petri dishes, it solidifies into a gel and can be used as a medium for bacterial growth
Read More

Helicobacter Pylori Bacteria

Helicobacter pylori (pronounced /ˌhɛlɨkɵˈbæktər pɪˈlɔraɪ/) is a Gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that can inhabit various areas of the stomach, paticularly the antrum. It causes a chronic low-level inflammation of the stomach lining and is strongly linked to the development of duodenal and gastric ulcers and stomach cancer. Over 80% of individuals infected with the bacterium are asymptomatic.
The bacterium was initially named Campylobacter pyloridis, then renamed C. pylori (pylori = genitive of pylorus) to correct a Latin grammar error. When 16S rRNA gene sequencing and other
Read More

Helicobacter pylori bacteria is a type of harmful microorganism that can infect the stomach and cause such diseases as peptic ulcer and gastritis. An infection of Helicobacter pylori bacteria can also increase the risk of developing stomach cancer.
An infection of Helicobacter pylori bacteria is a very common condition. It is believed that infections of Helicobacter pylori bacteria may be contagious. Infections of Helicobacter pylori bacteria often run in families.
Read More

Tuberculosis Bacteria
Except for very young children and people with a weakened immune system, few people become sick immediately after tuberculosis bacteria enter their body (this stage is called primary infection). In most cases, tuberculosis bacteria that enter the lungs are immediately killed by the body’s defenses. Those that survive are engulfed by white blood cells called macrophages. The engulfed bacteria can remain alive inside these cells in a dormant state for many years, walled off inside tiny scars (this stage is called latent infection). In 90 to 95% of cases, the bacteria never cause any further problems, but in about 5 to 10% of infected people, they eventually start to multiply and cause active disease. At this stage, infected people actually become sick and can spread the disease.
Read More

What is tuberculosis?
Tuberculosis is a disease caused by an infection with the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
During the 19th century, up to 25 per cent of deaths in Europe were caused by this disease. The death toll began to fall as living standards improved at the start of the 20th century, and from the 1940s, effective medicines were developed.
However, there are now more people in the world with TB than there were in 1950, and 3 million individuals will die this year from this disease - mainly in less developed countries.
The disease is more common in areas of the world where poverty, malnutrition, poor general health and social disruption are present.
Read More

MRSA Bacteria
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a bacterium responsible for several difficult-to-treat infections in humans. It may also be called multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA).
MRSA is, by definition, any strain of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria that has developed resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, which include the penicillins (methicillin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, etc.) and the cephalosporins.
Read More

MRSA is the name given to a group of bacteria that belong to the Staphylococcus aureus (SA) family of bacteria.
Most Staphylococcus aureus bacteria can be treated with medicines called methicillin-type antibiotics.
However, certain types of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria cannot be treated with methicillin-type antibiotics - the bacteria are resistant to these drugs. These are called MRSA bacteria:
M - methicillin
R - resistant
S - Staphylococcus
A - aureus1
Read More

Probiotic Bacteria
Probiotics are live microorganisms thought to be healthy for the host organism. According to the currently adopted definition by FAO/WHO, probiotics are: “Live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host”.[1] Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria are the most common types of microbes used as probiotics; but certain yeasts and bacilli may also be helpful. Probiotics are commonly consumed as part of fermented foods with specially added active live cultures; such as in yogurt, soy yogurt, or as dietary supplements.
Read More

Probiotics are live microorganisms (in most cases, bacteria) that are similar to beneficial microorganisms found in the human gut. They are also called “friendly bacteria” or “good bacteria.” Probiotics are available to consumers mainly in the form of dietary supplements and foods. They can be used as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)A group of diverse medical and health care systems, practices, and products that are not presently considered to be part of conventional medicine. Complementary medicine is used together with conventional medicine, and alternative medicine is used in place of conventional medicine.. To find out more about topics and resources mentioned in this fact sheet, see “For More Information.”
Read More

Strep Bacteria
• Group A streptococcus, or group A strep, is a bacterium commonly found in the throat and on the skin. Group A strep bacteria can cause a range of infections, from relatively mild sore throats and skin infections to life-threatening invasive disease.
• Group A strep bacteria are spread by direct person-to-person contact.
• Group A strep infections can usually be treated with antibiotics.
• Two types of very serious group A strep infections are necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.
• To prevent group A strep infections: 1) wash hands thoroughly and often, 2) get a throat culture for a sore throat with fever, and 3) keep wounds clean and seek medical care for infected wounds with fever.
Read More

• Group B streptococcus, or group B strep, is a bacterium that causes life- threatening infections in newborns. Group B strep can also cause disease in pregnant women, the elderly, and adults with other illnesses.
• Many people carry group B strep bacteria in their bodies without developing infection or illness. However, the bacteria can become deadly to people with weakened immune systems.
• Pregnant women can transmit group B strep to their newborns at birth. Group B strep is the most common cause of blood infections and meningitis in newborns.
• Most cases of group B strep disease in newborns can be prevented by giving certain pregnant women antibiotics during labor.
Read More

Bacteria Media
A growth medium (plural: media) is a mixture of nutrients, moisture and other chemicals that bacteria need for growth in a laboratory environment. Media can be solid, such as Jell-o-like agar that is poured into the bottom half of a Petri dish, or media can be liquid to allow for bacterial growth suspended in test tubes. Media aren’t used to examine individual bacteria, but rather to grow bacterial colonies; millions of bacteria having arisen through the binary fission of a single progenitor.
Read More

Every organism must find in its environment all of the substances required for energy generation and cellular biosynthesis. The chemicals and elements of this environment that are utilized for bacterial growth are referred to as nutrients or nutritional requirements. Many bacteria can be grown the laboratory in culture media which are designed to provide all the essential nutrients in solution for bacterial growth. Bacteria that are symbionts or obligate intracellular parasites of other cells, usually eucaryotic cells, are (not unexpectedly) difficult to grow outside of their natural host cells. Whether the microbe is a mutualist or parasite, the host cell must ultimately provide the nutritional requirements of its resident.
Read More

Staph Bacteria

if the staph bacteria is able to enter the body, it can cause infection ranging from very mild to (occasionally) life-threatening. Most often an infection is caused by staph entering the body through an open cut or wound, which is why it’s so important to properly clean and disinfect even minor cuts and scrapes. Less common are staph infection in nursing mothers (caused when the bacteria enters though cracked breast tissue) or women using tampons (where it manifests as Toxic Shock Syndrome). Again, good hygiene will eliminate much of the potential for these infections.
Read More

Chlamydia Bacteria
Chlamydia is a genus of bacteria that are obligate intracellular parasites. Chlamydia infections are the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infections in humans and are the leading cause of infectious blindness worldwide.[1]
The three Chlamydia species include Chlamydia trachomatis (a human pathogen), Chlamydia suis (affects only swine), and Chlamydia muridarum (affects only mice and hamsters).[2]

Read More

• Chlamydia (bacterium), a pathogenic bacterial genus
• Chlamydia infection, a human sexually transmitted infection
• Bacteria that belong to the class or phylum Chlamydiae or to the family Chlamydiaceae
• Chlamydophila, a bacterial genus
• Chlamydia trachomatis, bacteria that cause human sexually transmitted disease and eye infections
• Chlamydia muridarum, bacteria that cause disease in mice and hamsters (the Muridae)
Read More

Septic Bacteria
There are several benefits to septic bacteria treatment. This method of waste management is advantageous especially in rural areas where the transportation of waste to the appropriate treatment plants is less feasible. The benefits do not end there.
Rural Life
Septic tanks are perfect for rural life. They allow for the treatment of the amount of waste produced by a single household. It is an easy way for people in rural areas to handle their sewage in a safe, environmentally responsible manner.

Read More

UV Bacteria
What gas kills bacteria? Do uv wands kill bacteria? How microwave kills bacteria? What kills bacteria the fastest? Why does uv radiation kill bacteria? What kills harmful bacteria and food? Whitch cleaning product kills more bacteria? What kind of toothpaste kills more bacteria? What kind of monuthwash kills the most bacteria? What is the medication called that kills bacteria? What is the uv range that can be lethal to bacteria?
Read More

UV light is very effective in killing bacteria by messing up their DNA. It causes numerous cytosine and thymine bases to form covalent bonds with themselves and each other, producing dimers (these are mainly thymine-thymine dimers) and this makes it difficult for enzymes to make proper copies of DNA.

They will either totally skip such areas without adding a complementary base or add one at random which may well be the wrong one. Either way this
Read More

Bacteria Meningitis
Meningitis is inflammation of the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, known collectively as the meninges. The inflammation may be caused by infection with viruses, bacteria, or other microorganisms, and less commonly by certain drugs. Meningitis can be life-threatening because of the inflammation’s proximity to the brain and spinal cord; therefore the condition is classified as a medical emergency.

Read More

Bacterial meningitis may initially appear aseptic. Even though true aseptic meningitis cannot be caused by pyogenic bacteria, broad-spectrum antibiotic cover should be started as the consequences of misdiagnosing a bacterial meningitis are dire, and relatively easily avoided. For non-pyogenic bacteria, local sensitivities should be taken into account, but generally broad-spectrum is best. Some bacteria are normally sensitive to certain drugs - for example, rifampicin is good for Brucella.
Read More

Identifying Bacteria
As genotypic characterization (determination of the DNA and RNA characteristics of our bacteria) is becoming more widely practiced, we may soon be back to one standard of characterizing and identifying bacteria. This time it will be universally applicable as all bacterial genera and species become uniformly defined according to genotypic uniqueness. We hope that the results of the phenotypic tests we run will correlate with the genotypic characteristics and bring about accurate and useful identification of our organisms.
Read More

Bacteria are microscopic organisms with one cell. Some use photosynthesis to make their own food, while others are parasites that feed off the people, animals or plants they live in. Some bacteria live in human or animal intestines and break down food so it can be digested. Others live in soil or water where they break down dead matter and recycle chemicals like carbon and nitrogen. But the bacteria that cause disease need to be identified so the right medicine can be prescribed. It’s not easy to identify bacteria. After years of study, scientists still have not identified and classified some bacteria. But there are a few ways to identify bacteria.
Read More

Fecal Bacteria
A 100 ml volume of a water sample is drawn through a membrane filter (0.45 µm pore size) through the use of a vacuum pump. The filter is placed on a petri dish containing M-FC agar and incubated for 24 hours at 44.5 °C (112.1 degrees F). This elevated temperature heat shocks non-fecal bacteria and suppresses their growth. As the fecal coliform colonies grow they produce an acid (through fermenting lactose) that reacts with the aniline dye in the agar thus giving the colonies their blue color.
Read More

It fizzes. It quenches. And it could also contain fecal bacteria.
Nearly half of the 90 beverages from soda fountain machines in one area in Virginia tested positive for coliform bacteria -- which could indicate possible fecal contamination, according to a study published in the January issue of International Journal of Food Microbiology.
Researchers also detected antibiotic-resistant microbes and E.coli in the soda samples.

Read More

Friendly Bacteria
You have both friendly and not-so-friendly bacteria in your body, and both of these are meant to be there. The friendly bacteria is responsible for the digestion of your food, for breaking down waste products, for cleaning waste material from your intestinal wall, and for producing essential vitamins that your body needs.

For these reasons, friendly bacteria in your gastrointestinal tract is known as the second of the two “workers” in your body, and it is essential for your good health.
Read More

The power of friendly bacteria present in effluents flowing into the national river Ganga can be harnessed to combat the very same pollutants. That is what a study by a BHU assistant professor has concluded.
The bacterial population, which feeds and multiplies on these effluents, can be used to develop a microbe-based cleansing technique.
For that, these bacteria would have to be isolated from others present in the water, grown and later re-released into the effluent being discharged in the river.

Read More

Colon Bacteria

Bacteria in your colon are referred to by many different names - probiotics, good or bad bacteria, beneficial bacteria, acidophilus, disbiosis, micro flora, proflora, friendly flora, and unfriendly bacteria.
I simple use good and bad bacteria to refer to all the bacteria that exist in the small intestine and your colon.

Read More

Good bacteria in our colon and digestive tracks form an important part of our immune defense system, key to thousands of metabolic functions in our body. Good bacteria colonies in the colon are fragile and easily disrupted by antibiotics, steroids, hydrotherapy and intense colon cleansing. When the colon is depleted of its natural good bacteria population, your body may experience lowered immunity, poorer digestion, constipation, allergies, skin break-outs and bad breath, to name a few. This article provides easy guidance on restoring good bacteria to the colon to reach optimum health.
Read More

Lactobacillus Bacteria
Lactobacillus is a large bacterial genus with a number of interesting applications. Bacteria in this genus are generally benign, and some are actually beneficial, leading people to use them in probiotic preparations which are designed to promote health. Some common conventional uses of Lactobacillus bacteria include restoration of normal gut flora after severe infections and treatment of bacterial vaginosis.
Read More

My girlfriend has been experiencing a condition for the last year or so that includes itching near the opening of the vagina, not inside, and some light spotting. Many Obg/Gn’s told her that they didn’t notice anything peculiar from lab tests, but the itching and occassional bleeding persisted. Two weeks ago, a Doctor told her the problem is that she has TOO MUCH lactobacillus bacteria in her vagina, and needed to lower it to normal levels. Strage thing is, she was prescribed Clydanax (active ingredient clindanycin) According to clinical trials, the symptoms of those treated had too little lactobacillus, and the Dr. is being dismissive saying “Just trust me” angrily. Has anybody had a problem like this with too much lactobacillus bacteria. All the websites I have found talk about a deficiency, not too much. Is this Clydanax the right stuff? HELP!
Read More

Flu Bacteria
Several available tests can isolate and identify the viruses responsible for some respiratory infections. They are generally not needed, since most cases of the flu are self-evident. However, such tests can be very helpful in confirming or ruling out the flu. If a doctor believes a diagnosis would help, samples using a swab should be taken from the nasal passages or throat within 4 days of the first symptoms.
Read More

noting the differences in the two microbes, it becomes apparent as to why the swine flu is such a scary ordeal. Viruses are smart living organisms that seek out other living beings to feed from, reproduce in, and transport their minions through. They are resistant to most know medicines and when not killed off quickly enough, can adapt and become immune to new drugs and medicine created to destroy them.
Read More

Mold Bacteria
Mold & Bacteria Consulting Laboratories (MBL) specializes in identification and enumeration of mold and bacteria commonly detected in air, fluids and bulk samples collected from homes, schools, offices, hospitals, industrial, agricultural, and other work environments. MBL also provides a unique Mold Training Course on How to Recognize Indoor Mold, Develop Effective Sampling Strategies, Interpret Laboratory Results and Perform Effective Mold Remediation.
Read More

These molds are all known to cause different types of inhalation allergy. The species most frequently encountered were Stachybotrys chartarum, Penicillium chrysogenum, and Aspergillus versicolor.

If you’re interested in learning more about mold and bacteria, you can explore the links above to the left. If you’re curious or concerned about anything not covered here, please use the Question Form.

If you’re looking for even more information beyond the scope of what’s provided here, the Resources page will give you links to other educational materials.
Read More

Bacteria Petri Dish
We recommend disposable plastic petri dishes for general culturing. These 90 mm non-reusable dishes are pre-sterilized in packages of 20. Glass petri dishes can be heat sterilized and are reusable.

Agar is the medium that is used to grow bacteria cultures. Order nutrient agar for general culturing. Our sterile, 125 ml bottle of nutrient agar is easy to use: just warm it until it melts and fill your petri dishes. One bottle fills about 10 dishes.

Dehydrated agar must be mixed with boiling water to dissolve. One re-hydrated package fills about 15-20 dishes. Mix 1 level teaspoon of dehydrated agar with 100 ml (3/8 cup) of boiling water to make 100 ml of agar solution. This agar can be sterilized before pouring into sterile plastic dishes. Sterilize in a pressure cooker at 15 lbs. pressure for 15 minutes.
Read More


C Diff Bacteria
C - difficile is a bacteria in your intestines. It is found normally in healthy and ill people alike. There are millions, perhaps billions of different types of bacteria in your body. Bacteria are an important part of your health. They help break down and digest food. They also ward off many “bad” or foreign bacteria that you may come in contact with. In fact, the “good” or normal bacteria on your hands can kill certain bad bacteria which you may pick up handling food or touching everyday items and fixtures.
Read More

We all know that diarrhea is an all too common problem in people living with HIV. Many times, the diarrhea is an unfortunate side effect of the very medications used to treat HIV. But there are times when diarrhea is more than just an irritating side effect. Diarrhea can be the result of an infectious organism known as Clostridium difficile, more commonly known as C.diff. What is C.diff and why is it nothing to ignore?
Read More

Mycoplasma Bacteria
One interesting thing about bacteria in this genus is that they have no cell walls. Their lack of cell walls causes them to have a very elastic shape which can vary at any given time, one of the reasons it was so difficult to isolate and confirm the presence of Mycoplasma in the laboratory. These bacteria are also less susceptible to many commonly used drugs, since antibiotics often target the cell wall, and Mycoplasma have no cell walls to grab on to.
Read More

Mycoplasmal organisms are the smallest known free-living life forms. They are nearly ubiquitous in both the plant and animal kingdoms as colonizers and pathogens. They are prokaryotes but lack a cell wall. However, they have a unique cell membrane that contains sterols, which are not present in either bacteria or viruses. Mycoplasma organisms are small (150-250 nm) and have deformable membranes. The name Mycoplasma refers to the plasticity of the bacterial forms resembling fungal elements.
Read More

Tongue Bacteria
I Can’t Get This White Tongue Bacteria to Go Away!!
Around the back of the tongue is where it gets really white, that pic probably doesn’t show it enough. This has caused me bad breath for years and I don’t think it has ever gone away. I brush my tongue, floss, use a tongue scraper, and nothing helps. I chew gum and the constant flow of saliva keeps it from reeking I guess.

“What exactally is this white bacteria that won’t go away? Maybe a super strong mouthwash
will eliminate the problem?”
Read More

Tongue cleaning does not kill the bacteria that cause bad breath that are breeding below the surface of a geographic tongue. It simply removes the gunk on the surface of your tongue (mucus and food debris) which are a food source for the anaerobic bacteria. In order to get rid of those anaerobic bacteria (which are responsible for white tongue), you must use an oxygenating toothpaste which can penetrate beneath your tongues surface.
Read More

Healthy Bacteria

Of late, there has been a buzz in the media about ‘probiotics’. Probiotics are the ‘healthy bacteria’. It may appear quite like an oxymoron as good health is not usually associated with bacteria. They are ‘live’ micro-organisms, which when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. If you are wondering how one can knowingly take in live bacteria, there are a few more facts to surprise you…
Read More

One specific aspect of human health that most people don’t think about is the never-ending population shifts that occur in the digestive system. There, both good and bad bacteria cohabitate in various proportions. Generally speaking, it’s a peaceful coexistence. But if the number of pathogenic bacteria grow out of control, things could get ugly. The good news is that we humans are capable of tipping the bacterial balance back in our favor by supplementing with exogenous probiotics (good bacteria) if the bad guys get out of hand. Here are a few examples of how both harmful and healthful bacteria may impact common health conditions.
Read More

UTI Bacteria

A bacterial urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common kind of infection affecting the urinary tract. Urine, or pee, is the fluid that is filtered out of the bloodstream by the kidneys. Urine contains salts and waste products, but it doesn’t normally contain bacteria. When bacteria get into the bladder or kidney and multiply in the urine, a UTI can result.
Read More

Bacterial UTIs can involve the urethra, prostate, bladder, or kidneys. Symptoms may be absent or include urinary frequency and urgency, dysuria, lower abdominal pain, and flank pain. Systemic symptoms and even sepsis may occur with kidney infection. Diagnosis is based on analysis and culture of urine. Treatment is with antibiotics.
Among adults aged 20 to 50 yr, UTIs are about 50-fold more common in women. The incidence increases in patients > 50 yr, but the female:male ratio decreases because of the increasing frequency of prostate disease

Read More

Teeth Bacteria
Bacteria that eat sugar and release cavity-causing acid onto teeth may soon be made dramatically more vulnerable to their own acid. Researchers have identified key genes and proteins that, if interfered with, can take away the ability of a key bacterial species to thrive as its acidic waste builds up in the mouth.
Read More

Plaque is a film of bacteria and mucous that grows on your teeth. Some of the bacteria in the plaque make acids which decay your teeth. Other kinds of bacteria in the plaque make toxins which cause gum disease. The easiest and most effective way to remove the plaque from your teeth is to brush and floss. Those costly rinses just don’t do it! When the plaque is hardened on your teeth it is called tartar or calculus. Then you need a Dental Hygienist or Dentist to remove it by “scaling” the tartar off.
Read More

Wastewater Bacteria
Most of the bacteria that absorb the organic material in a wastewater treatment system are facultative in nature. This means they are adaptable to survive and multiply in either anaerobic or aerobic conditions. The nature of individual bacteria is dependent upon the environment in which they live. Usually, facultative bacteria will be anaerobic unless there is some type of mechanical or biochemical process used to add oxygen to the wastewater. When bacteria are in the process of being transferred from one environment to the other, the metamorphosis from anaerobic to aerobic state (and vice versa) takes place within a couple of hours.
Read More

A practical guide to wastewater bacteria and the roles they perform in wastewater treatment - Communicating material in a practical manner for operators and technicians who regulate and troubleshoot their wastewater treatment processes, Wastewater Bacteria discusses the effective control and proper operation of aerobic (activated sludge) and anaerobic (anaerobic digesters) biological treatment units to ensure that an adequate, active, and appropriate population of bacteria is present in each treatment unit. It is a hands-on guide to understanding the biology and biological conditions that occur at each treatment unit.
Read More

Vaginal Bacteria Infection
*the reason i think this is because if your spouse were to have sex with a “nasty” woman come home to you and not wash up, then have sex with you then bam you got it. because he just crossed whatever the other woman had straight to you.

• Douching is never a good idea. Douching may disrupt the fragile balance of natural organisms in the vagina which may lead too bacterial or yeast infection and may also cause the spread of infection up into the reproductive tract where it can do damage.
• Keep the vaginal area clean and dry. Wash before and after sex with an antibacterial cleanser and thoroughly dry the vaginal area to prevent moisture from creating a breeding ground for bacteria.
Read More

The vagina creates its own environment and maintains a balance among the normal bacteria found there and the hormonal changes in a woman’s body. Vaginitis occurs when the vaginal ecosystem has been changed by certain medications such as antibiotics, hormones, contraceptive preparations (oral and topical), douches, vaginal medication, sexual intercourse, sexually transmitted diseases, stress, and change in sexual partners.
Read More

Syphilis Bacteria: Syphilis

• Syphilis is a sexually transmitted bacterial infection.
• Syphilis is most often passed from person to person through sexual contact. It can also be passed from an infected pregnant woman to her unborn child.
• Syphilis is treatable with antibiotics.
• Without treatment, syphilis moves through the body in stages, damaging many organs over time. Infected persons are highly infectious during the early stages.
• To prevent syphilis: 1) do not have sex with persons who have genital sores; 2) use condoms with new sex partners; 2) if you think you are infected, avoid sexual contact and see a health-care provider; 3) tell all sexual contacts to see a health-care provider. All pregnant women should receive a prenatal blood test for syphilis.

Read More

Syphilis is a sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacteria Treponoma pallidum. It is often called the “Great Imitator” because syphilis symptoms resemble those of other common diseases. It has also been given the names “Miss. Siff” and “The Pox”. Almost 36 000 cases of syphilis are reported in the United States each year but many more go unreported. The majority of syphilis sufferers are male, accounting for about 60% of all cases. If caught early on in a syphilis test, syphilis can be easily treated. However, if left untreated, syphilis can cause heart problems, psychological disorders, blindness, and death. Syphilis also increases the risk of contracting HIV, the virus that causes AIDS, by up to five fold.
Read More

Legionella Bacteria

Legionellosis is an infectious disease caused by Gram negative, aerobic bacteria belonging to the genus Legionella. Over 90% of legionellosis cases are caused by Legionella pneumophila, a ubiquitous aquatic organism that thrives in temperatures between 25 and 45 °C (77 and 113 °F), with an optimum around 35 °C (95 °F).

Read More

When Legionella pneumophila adapt to living inside an amoebae many changes have been found to occur. For example, the membrane lipid content changes, the protein profile changes, and a 15-kDa protein thought to be of amebic origin becomes tightly associated with the bacteria. It has been determined that one amoebae can house enough Legionella bacteria to infect a human being,
Read More

Bacteria Overgrowth
How is small intestinal bacterial overgrowth treated?
SIBO has been recognized for many years as a problem with severe disorders of intestinal muscles and intestinal obstruction. The treatment has been antibiotics, and they are very effective. The difficulty is that the disease causing the SIBO often cannot be corrected. As a result, symptoms frequently return when antibiotics are stopped, and it may be necessary to treat the patient with antibiotics repeatedly or even continuously.

Read More

Bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine is a relatively common condition that can be present for years before it is detected. That’s because despite overuse of antibiotics, antacids, and other medications that wipe out friendly intestinal bacteria, many physicians don’t test their patients for it.

Instead, people with chronic digestive problems such as gas, bloating, diarrhea, and/or constipation are often told they have irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) when the underlying problem is actually small intestine bacterial overgrowth. Given that IBS is the number one gastrointestinal diagnosis, bacterial overgrowth could be greatly underdiagnosed.
Read More

Candida Bacteria

We must create a healthy environment within the Gastrointestinal Tract. Antibiotics destroy the friendly gut bacteria, allowing the naturally present candida bacteria to overpopulate, and then mutate into a mold, which penetrates the intestinal wall to infect the rest of the body. This process has the end result of a “Polysystemic Candidiasis Infection.” (Poly meaning in many systems of the body.) Replacing friendly bacteria on a regular basis, but especially during and after any antibiotic use, is very important for the prevention of a candida overgrowth. A high quality, balanced, Intestinal Replacement product, should replace the delicate strands of the various acidophilus types of intestinal bacterium.
Read More

Of the yeast fungi the best known, most frequent and the most damaging among them is candida albicans. Which can affect the whole body. There are at least 25 different variations of this yeast fungus in the human body. Experts say that 1/3 of the population of the industrial nations suffers from diseases associated with candida albicans.
Candida albicans is a yeast-like fungus that normally lives in healthy balance in the body, found mostly in the intestines, genital tract, mouth, and throat. When the balance is upset or your defenses are poor infection results. This is known as Candidiasis and the fungus travels to all parts of the body through the bloodstream releasing its toxins to many parts of the body.

Read More

Gardnerella Bacteria
Gardnerella Vaginalis is an infection of the female genital tract by bacteria of the Gardnerella vaginalis strain, often in combination with various anaerobic bacteria. Also called bacterial vaginosis. Gardnerella vaginalis was originally described by Gardner and Dukes in 1955. The infection often produces a gray or yellow discharge with a “fishy” odor that increases after washing the genitalia with alkaline soaps.
Read More

Bacterial vaginosis, also called BV, is the most common vaginal infection in women of childbearing age. It happens when the normal balance of bacteria in the vagina is disrupted and replaced by an overgrowth of certain bacteria called Gardnerella.
The vagina normally contains mostly “good” bacteria, and fewer “harmful” bacteria. Bacterial vaginosis develops when there is an increase in “harmful” bacteria and fewer “good” bacteria.
Read More

Digestive Bacteria
As soon as an infant is born, bacteria begin colonizing its digestive tract. The first bacteria to settle in are able to affect the immune response, making it more favorable to their own survival and less so to competing species; thus the first bacteria to colonize the gut are important in determining the person’s lifelong gut flora makeup. However, there is a shift at the time of weaning from predominantly facultative aerobic species such as Streptococci and Escherichia coli to mostly obligate anaerobic species.[2][3]
Read More

The human body is teeming with bacteria. In each person, there are about 10 times as many bacterial cells as human cells. Bacteria live on skin, in the respiratory tract and throughout the digestive tract. The digestive tract alone is home to between 500 and 1,000 bacterial species. While some bacteria cause infections, most species are harmless or perform beneficial functions, such as aiding digestion. These beneficial bugs are called commensal bacteria. One of the most important functions of commensal bacteria is boosting the immune system. Studies by other researchers have found that mice raised in sterile, germ-free environments have poorly developed immune systems. But until now, scientists have not known the mechanism by which bacteria help the immune system.
Read More

Dental Bacteria
Dental caries, also known as tooth decay or cavity, is a disease wherein bacterial processes damage hard tooth structure (enamel, dentin, and cementum).[1] These tissues progressively break down, producing dental caries (cavities, holes in the teeth). Two groups of bacteria are responsible for initiating caries: Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. If left untreated, the disease can lead to pain, tooth loss, infection, and, in severe cases, death.[2] Today, caries remains one of the most common diseases throughout the world. Cariology is the study of dental caries.\\
Read More

by Helpful Buckeye
from the particles generated during a dental cleaning. These particles are full of bacteria and, if inhaled, can... will be a continuation of our review of Pet Dental Disease. Enjoy! 1) Helpful Buckeye has received a lot of e-mails about our
by DietsInReview .. phytochemicals that repress growth of some oral bacteria associated with dental cavities and gum disease! The study isolated eight known raisin compounds and tested each for antimicrobial activity against bacteria that causes cavities
Read More

Molecular Genetics Of Bacteria
This review is from: Molecular Genetics of Bacteria (Hardcover)
This is one of few college textbooks I’ve used that has actually HELPED me learn the course material. The book takes you from the basics (DNA structure and replication, etc.) all the way through some very complex concepts while never missing a beat. It’s surprisingly readable and student-user-friendly whether you’re a beginner or a certifiable gene jockey. My only complaint is the quality of the figures; some of them are very small and thus hard to read, and as one reviewer commented, they are sort of simplistic to the point of not being very thorough. Having full-color illustrations would be a big plus.
Read More

The Fourth Edition of this highly successful book provides an essential introduction to the molecular genetics of bacteria. Thoroughly revised and updated, Molecular Genetics of Bacteria now includes a much greater coverage of genomics, microarrays and proteomics. An enhanced treatment of the ways in which both classical and modern genetics have contributed to our understanding of how bacteria work is included. The focus of the book remains firmly on bacteria and will be invaluable to those students studying microbiology, biotechnology, molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics and related biomedical sciences.
Read More

STD Bacteria

Chlamydia is caused by a type of bacteria called Chlamydia trachomatis. CDC says it is the most frequently reported bacterial STD, with over half a million cases a year. Seventy-five percent of those reported cases are in people under the age of 25. CDC estimates however that the actual infection rate is much higher, about 3 million people a year. Because many people aren’t aware they are infected, it is never reported.
Read More

What is a bacterial STD? What do chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and other bacterial STDs have in common? How are bacterial STDs treated and diagnosed? Chlamydia: An Overview
Worried you might have chlamydia? Know someone who was recently diagnosed? Find out more about chlamydia here.
Read More

 Top
 
1. Bacteria - Taxonomy

Bacteriological Nomenclature And Taxonomy

This Link lists the members of International Committee on Bacteriological Nomenclature.

 Top
 
2. Bacteria - Types

Gram Positive Bacteria

Avid bacteriology researchers always wanted to possess a personal collection of bacterial index. Click here for an archive on Gram positive bacteria

Bacteria at Hydrothermal Vents

Tiny, single-celled bacteria comprise most life on this planet, yet we have discovered only about five percent of its diversity. We know even less about bacteria thriving at deep-sea hydrothermal vents

Food Poisoning Bacteria

It is estimated that every year more than five million Australians are affected by food borne illness. Illnesses such as food poisoning are…Read More

Motile Marine Bacteria

Not all bacteria isolated from seawater are typically "marine," especially if the source is within a few miles of land. Based on the quantitative sodium ion requirement…Read more

Bacteria: Sources, Types, Impact on Water Quality

Countless numbers of bacteria, viruses, and other microorganisms exist in the environment – land and water – and also...Read more

Soil Bacteria

Bacteria are some of the smallest and most abundant microbes in the soil. In a single gram of soil, there can be billions of bacteria. There are an estimated 60,000…Read More

Iron and Sulfur Bacteria in Water Supplies

There are several signs that may indicate an iron bacteria problem. Water may have a yellow, red…Read more

Anti-Material Bacteria

Halfway between killer germs and exotic industrial bacteria, these are microorganisms designed to attack nonliving things rather than…Read More

Bacteria: Form and Function

In this lab, you will be working with living bacteria and should develop the following skills:

      To recognize the basic shapes and arrangements of bacteria.

      To examine the motility of bacteria.

      To use the oil immersion lens of the microscope efficiently to examine bacteria.

Plant Pathogenic Bacteria

This link provides you a lab activity to:

1) Recognize symptoms and signs typical of plant diseases caused by bacteria.

2) Introduction to identification of bacteria.

3) Practice Koch’s postulates

 Top
 
3. Bacteria - Diseases

Bacterial Diseases of Plants

Although considered structurally simple, bacteria are extremely diverse from a metabolic standpoint and are found almost everywhere on Earth in vast numbers—from living in jet fuel and on the rims of volcanoes to thriving in hydrothermal vents deep…Read more

Bacterial Diseases of Poultry

All bacteria are not detrimental to animal health. In fact, many bacteria are beneficial and necessary for…Read more

Bacterial Diseases of Beans

Bacterial diseases cause losses to bean growers in several different ways. Because these bacteria are seed-borne, the presence of diseased plants in seed fields will affect the certification eligibility of the crop, as…Read more

Bacterial Diseases of Ornamentals

Managing bacterial diseases of greenhouse ornamentals differs from those developed for other crops. Many different ornamentals are often produced in a single greenhouse and maximizing crop production while…Read more

Bacterial Diseases in Chinese Catfish

The Chinese catfish (Clarias fuscus) is prized by many consumers as a fresh and flavorful

alternative to the numerous varieties of saltwater fish caught each day in Hawaiian waters. Indeed, Hawaiis Chinese catfish aquaculture industry has grown tremendously, with the value of the crop jumping fromRead more

Bacterial Diseases (other than Mycoplasma)

Typhoid fever is a life-threatening illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella typhi. The infection is common through the world except in the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan, and Western Europe. There are about 400 cases per year...Read more

Bacterial Diseases (Mycoplasma)

How far do you agree with Mycoplama theory?

Bacterial Diseases of Lotus spp.

Lotus is a well known and attractive flower. This article discusses in detail about the various bacterial infections in lotus.

Bacterial Diseases of Greenhouse Grown Tomatoes

This link provides a thorough analysis about the bacterial diseases that damage the greenhouse grown tomatoes.

Important Bacterial Diseases in Potato Seed-Tuber Production

This article discusses about the three most important bacteria that affect the potato seed-tuber production.

 Top
 
4. Bacteria - Research

Predicting Bacterial Behavior Through Comparative Genomics

Genomic tools have helped a great deal in analyzing the behavior of bacteria.
This article
is such an excerpt study.

Quorum-Sensing Regulation Governs Bacterial Adhesion, Biofilm Development, And Host Colonization in Pantoea Stewartii Subspecies Stewartii

The phytopathogenic bacterium Pantoea stewartii subsp. Stewartii synthesizes stewartan exo/capsular polysaccharide (EPS) in a cell density-dependent manner governed by the EsaI/EsaR quorum sensing (QS) system. This study analyzes biofilm development and host colonization of the WT and QS regulatory…
Read more

Mn Oxide Biogenesis and Metal Sequestration in the Presence of Co (TI) and Cu 01) by Bacillus SG-1 Bacterial Spores

h4n oxides play an important role in degrading contaminants and cycling nutrients in soils and natural waters. The process in which Mn (IT) oxidizes to form MnO, is slow; however, Bacillus SG-1 bacterial spores can catalyze the process and allow it to…Read more

The Influence of a Diet Rich in Wheat Fiber on the Human Faecal Flora

Many of the diseases peculiar to western civilization have been ascribed to the removal from the diet of the major part of the fiber of the wheat grain. It has been suggested that this part of the wheat grain, known as bran, is of specific value in the prevention of..Read more

 Top
 
5. Bacteria - Culture Collection

Home Pages of Culture Collections in the World

This link provides details about 568 culture collections in 68 countries registered in WDCM.

Culture Collections of Prokaryotes (Bacteria)

The Editorial Board of the International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology (IJSEM), and the International Committee on Systematics of Prokaryotes (ICSP), decided in August 2002 that authors of papers in which new names and/or new combinations are proposed provide evidence that types are deposited in two publicly accessible recognized culture collections in two different countries (i.e. documents certifying deposition and public availability of type strains). Papers will not be accepted and new species, new subspecies or new combinations will not be cited in a Validation List without…Read More

BCCM/LMG Bacteria Collection

The BCCM/LMG public collection maintains over 22.000 strains, representing some 380 genera and 2.700 species, subspecies or pathovars, encompassing plant associated and…Read More

 Top
 
6. Bacteria - Questions

Questions Collection

This link is provides excellent collection of questions on bacteria and relevant topics.

 Top
 
7. Bacteria - News

New York Times

Have a look at the collection of news material related to E. Coli.

 Top
 
8. Bacteria - Professional Links

List of Professional Links on Bacteriology and/or Microbiology

Browse this link for a useful list of professional links on Bacteriology and/or Microbiology

 Top
9. Bacteria - Journals

Journals List

Refer this link for an exhaustive collection of academic journals.

 Top
Quick links
 
 
   
Ask me later