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Protozoa
S.No Topics
Protozoa - Quick links
1. Protozoa - Introduction
2. Protozoa - Types
3. Protozoa - Research
4. Protozoa - Diseases
5. Protozoa - Questions
6. Protozoa - News
7. Protozoa - Journals
 
 
Brief Introduction to Protozoa
Protozoa are microscopic Endo and Ecto parasites. The common and 
well known protozoan infection is amoebic dysentery. There are also more severe protozoan infections.  Airborne Protozoa Clothesline  Attack of the Protozoa from Urusei Yatsura  Babesia Protozoa  Bacteria Protozoa  Betadine Kills Protozoa  Characteristics of a Protozoa under a Microscope  Diaherria Caused By a Water Protozoa  Diseases Caused By Protozoa  Does Protozoa Microbes Contain DNA  Economic Importance of Protozoa  Ectoplasm of the Protozoa  Equine Protozoa  Flagellated Protozoa  Food Vacuole of the Protozoa  Function of Mitochondria of the Protozoa  Functions of the Nucleus of the Protozoa  General Characteristics of Protozoa  Harmful Protozoa  Health Topics on Protozoa  Helpful Protozoa  How Do Amoeba Proteus Attract Other Protozoa  How Does Opalina Protozoa Move  Malaria Protozoa  Media for Protozoa  Mitochondria of the Protozoa  Opalina Protozoa General Characteristics  Parasitic Protozoa  Phyla of Protozoa Characteristics  Picture of Protozoa  Protozoa and Belize  Protozoa Avoidance Mechanisms  Protozoa Biology  Protozoa Cat Wasting Away  Protozoa Causing Amoebic Dysentery  Protozoa Causing Malaria  Protozoa Classification  Protozoa Defence against Disease  Protozoa Diagram  Protozoa Disease  Protozoa Encyclopaedia  Protozoa Enteric Gastroenteritis  Protozoa for Kids  Protozoa from Zenon  Protozoa in Hay Infusion  Protozoa Infection Transmission  Protozoa Life Cycle Diagram  Protozoa Parasite  Protozoa Parasite of Humans  Protozoa Replication  Protozoa Resimleri  Protozoa Taxonomy  Protozoa Vector Health Topics  Sensory Mechanisms Protozoa  Soil Protozoa  Squeezils Protozoa Inscape
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Protozoa - Quick links

Ameba Taxonomy :

Amebas are unicellular organisms consisting mainly of cytoplasm and a flexible cell wall. The cytoplasm is capable of changing states. The amoeboid body form is not unique to amoeba. Many other types of organisms, such as algae, have similar strucutres. They have adaptive forms. Amebas use pseudopodia for both locomotion and obtaining food. Most species do not have flagella, but some go through a flagellate phase. Some species of amebas have a shell, called a test. These amebas are known as Testate Amebas. Amebas without testates are referred to as Naked Amebas. The species Entamoeba histolytica does not have a mitochondria or cytochrome system. Some of the research focusing on the pathogenicity of amebas has inidicated that differences in cell composition may result in making certain species pathogenic and other species non- pathogenic. Research by...Read more

Ameba Genus :

There are many closely related terms that can be the source of confusion:
Amoeba is a genus that includes species such as Amoeba proteus. Amoebidae is a family that includes the Amoeba genus, among others. Amoebozoa is a kingdom that includes the Amoebidae family, among others. Amoeboids are organisms that move by crawling. Many (but not all) Amoeboids are Amoebozo...Read more

Ameba Scientific Name :

What is the scientific name of amoeba? Amoeba is actually a specific genus so you have it's scientific name (written in italics and with a capital A). But if you mean the general group of celled organisms other than animals, plants, or fungi then Protists (Kingdom)...Read more

Ameba :

The ameba is one of the simplest of the protozoa. It can be found in ponds and rivers and on the surface of the leaves of water plants. It looks like a grayish blob under a microscope. Its shape is constantly changing as it moves along. One characteristic of the ameba is its false feet, that scientists call pseudopodia. The false feet extend out and then the rest of the body follows the false feet along. The ameba eats little animals and plants. It sends out its false feet to surround the plant or animal and then pops it right into the cell! The ameba has tiny sacs in its body called vacuoles. Some of the vacuoles have food in them. Others collect water and squeeze the extra water out. Oxygen enters the ameba through its thin covering called a cell membrane. The carbon dioxide leaves the ameba through the cell membrane as well. The ameba avoids light but swims faster in warmer temperatures. The ameba reproduces by splitting in half. This is called fission. The ameba's nucleus or center splits in half and goes to opposite ends of...Read more

Parasites :

Parasites: 85-95% of adults have parasites in them but don't know it. You may be one of the unlucky ones. The subject of these web pages is terrifying, but the information may help you improve your health...Parasites are a serious public health threat because so few people are talking about them and even fewer people are listening when they are being discussed. Parasites are insidious because of the common misconception among medical people and the general public that parasites are generally a Third World problem where malnutrition and poor hygienic practices exist. Nothing could be farther from the truth. Tests often do not show the presence of parasites because the testing procedures are by and large outdated and
inadequate...Read more

Organism :

In biology, an organism is any living system (such as animal, plant, fungus, or micro-organism). In at least some form, all organisms are capable of response to stimuli, reproduction, growth and development, and maintenance of homeostasis as a stable whole. An organism may either be unicellular (single-celled) or be composed of, as in humans, many trillions of cells grouped into specialized tissues and organs. The term multicellular (many-celled) describes any organism made up of more than one cell...Read more

Phylum :

In biology, a phylum is a taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class. "Phylum" is equivalent to the botanical term division. Although "phylum" is often used as if it were a clearly defined term, no satisfactory definition of it exists. In fact, "phylum" may be a misnomer indicative of ignorance.[2] Consequently the number of phyla varies from one author to the next. The relationships among phyla are becoming increasingly well known, and larger clades can be found to contain many of the phyl...Read more

Locomotion :

Locomotion: The term locomotion means movement or travel. It may refer to :

       Motion (physics)
       Animal locomotion
       Terrestrial locomotion
       Travel

Locomotion may refer to specific types of motion :

       Gait analysis
       Walking
       running, including trotting
       jumping, including leaping gaits...Read more

Microbial Amoeba :

Amoebas are one-celled protozoa. There are several varieties found in humans that are not considered to be disease producers. However, such virulent strains as Entamoeba coli and Entamoeba hartmanni, can produce mild diarrhea and dysentery. Most amoeba infestations, however, do not produce clinical symptoms. Amoebas generally have a two-phase life cycle: the infective dormant cyst and trophozoite, a later form that is motile and active. When cysts are ingested, they are carried to the small intestine, where they are released as trophozoites into the colon. This form dwells mainly inside the bowel lumen, where it grows and multiplies. The incubation period varies from a few days to three...Read more

Microbes :

A microorganism (from the Greek: μικρός, mikrós, "small" and ὀργανισμός, organismós, "organism"; also spelled micro organism or micro-organism) or microbe is an organism that is microscopic (too small to be seen by the naked human eye). The study of microorganisms is called microbiology, a subject that began with Anton van Leeuwenhoek's discovery of microorganisms in 1675, using a microscope of his own design. Microorganisms are very diverse; they include bacteria, fungi, archaea, and protists; microscopic plants (green algae); and animals such as plankton and the planarian. Some microbiologists also include viruses, but others consider these as non-living.[1][2] Most microorganisms are...Read more

Protista :

Protista: Some members of Kingdom Protista are unicellular, others are colonial, and yet others are multicellular. Note that in the colonial forms, all the cells are similar with similar, generalized functions, whereas in the truly multicellular species, the body of the organism consists of a variety of types of cells, each type with its own specialized function. These organisms are all eukaryotes (they have a true nucleus). They all need some kind of a water-based environment--which can be fresh or marine water, snow, damp soil, polar bear hairs--in which to live. All are aerobic and have mitochondria to do cellular respiration, and some have chloroplasts and can do photosynthesis. Most of them reproduce or grow by mitosis, and some reproduce by meiosis and fertilization. Many can form cysts in adverse conditions. Protists are a major component of plankton. Protists are grouped into three major, unofficial categories based on means by which they obtain nutrition. These are the Protozoa, the Algae, and the Fungus-like Protists. For some reason, botanists use the word Division to mean the same taxonomic level as Phylum, and since, way back everything was lumped in as either a plant or an animal, taxonomists who study Kingdom Protista (and those who study Kingdom Fungi) also still use the...Read more

Microorganisms :

Microorganisms are very tiny one-celled organisms, viruses, fungi, and bacteria, and are found everywhere in the world. They are found in all living things, plants and animal. There are more microorganisms on and inside your body than there are cells that make up your entire body. Microorganisms can live in the air, on land, and in fresh or salt water environments. Some of them, pathogens, can be harmful and causes diseases, but there are some microorganisms that are needed for living things to survive...Read more

Infectious Diseases :

An infectious disease is a clinically evident illness resulting from the presence of pathogenic microbial agents, including pathogenic viruses, pathogenic bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular parasites, and aberrant proteins known as prions. These pathogens are able to cause disease in animals and/or plants. Infectious pathologies are also called communicable diseases or transmissible diseases due to their potential of transmission from one person or species to another by a replicating agent (as opposed to a toxin). Transmission of an infectious disease may occur through one or more of diverse pathways including physical contact with infected individuals. These infecting agents may also be transmitted through liquids, food, body fluids, contaminated objects, airborne inhalation, or...Read more

Pathogens :

A pathogen, (from Greek πάθος pathos "suffering, passion", and γἰγνομαι (γεν-) gignomai (gen-) "I give birth to") an infectious agent, or more commonly germ, is a biological agent that causes disease to its host. There are several substrates and pathways whereby pathogens can invade a host; the principal pathways have different episodic time frames, but soil contamination has the longest or most persistent potential for harboring a pathogen. The body contains many natural orders of defense against some of the common pathogens (such as Pneumocystis) in the form of the...Read more

Pathogen :

Pathogen definition: Pathogen: An agent of disease. A disease producer. The term pathogen most commonly is used to refer to infectious organisms. These include bacteria (such as staph), viruses (such as HIV), and fungi (such as yeast). Less commonly, pathogen refers to a noninfectious agent of disease such as a chemical. The term pathogen was devised about 1880 and was compounded from patho- meaning disease + -gen indicating a producer. Hence, a disease producer...Read more

Parasitic :

Parasitism is a type of symbiotic relationship between organisms of different species where one organism, the parasite, benefits at the expense of the host. In general, parasites are much smaller than their host, show a high degree of specialization for their mode of life, and reproduce more quickly and in greater numbers than their hosts. Classic examples of parasitism include interactions between vertebrate hosts and diverse animals such as tapeworms, flukes, the Plasmodium species, and fleas. Parasitism is differentiated from parasitoidism, a relationship in which the host is always killed by the parasite such as moths, butterflies, ants, flies, elietes and humans and also others. The harm and benefit in parasitic interactions concern the biological fitness of the organisms involved. Parasites reduce host fitness in many ways, ranging from general or specialized pathology (such as castration), impairment of secondary sex characteristics, to the modification of host behaviour. Parasites increase their fitness by...Read more

Stentor :

Stentor, sometimes called trumpet animalcules are a genus of filter-feeding, heterotrophic ciliate protists, representative of the heterotrichs. They are usually horn-shaped, and reaching lengths of 2 millimeters, they are among the biggest known unicellular organisms. The body, or lorica, is generally horn-shaped, hence the association with the Greek herald and the former name "trumpet animalcule", with a ring of prominent cilia around the anterior "bell" that sweep in food and aid in swimming. Some reach several millimeters in length, making them among the largest single celled organisms. Stentor can come in different colors. As in many freshwater protozoans, the Stentor has a contractile vacuole. Because the concentration of salt inside the cell and in the surrounding freshwater is different, Stentor must store water that enters it by osmosis and then discharge it from the vacuole. They can regenerate, and small fragments can...Read more

Plasmodium :

Plasmodium is a genus of parasitic protists. Infection by these organisms is known as malaria. The genus Plasmodium was created in 1885 by Marchiafava and Celli. Currently over 200 species of this genus are recognized and new species continue to be described. Of the over 200 known species of Plasmodium, at least 10 species infect humans. Other species infect animals, including monkeys, rodents, birds, and reptiles. The parasite always has two hosts in its life cycle: a mosquito vector and a vertebrate host...Read more

Protozoa :

Protozoa (from the Greek words proton, meaning "first", and zoa, meaning "animals") is a subkingdom of microorganisms that are generally classified as unicellular eukaryotes. Protozoans play a key role in maintaining the balance of the ecosystem. The word protozoan is originally an adjective and is used as a noun.[citation needed] While there is no exact definition for the term protozoan, most scientists use the word to refer to a unicellular heterotrophic protist, such as the amoeba and ciliate. The term algae is used for microorganisms that photosynthesize. However, the distinction between protozoa and algae is often vague. For example, the algae Dinobryon has chloroplasts for photosynthesis, but it can also feed on organic matter and is motile. Protozoans are...Read more

Paramecium :

Paramecium is a group of unicellular ciliate protozoa, which are commonly studied as a representative of the ciliate group, and range from about 50 to 350 μm in length. Simple cilia cover the body, which allow the cell to move with a synchronous motion (like a caterpillar). There is also a deep oral groove containing inconspicuous compound oral cilia (as found in other peniculids) used to draw food inside. They generally feed on bacteria and other small cells. Osmoregulation is carried out by a pair of contractile vacuoles, which actively expel water from the cell absorbed by osmosis from their surroundings. Paramecia are widespread in freshwater environments, and are especially common in scums. Recently, some new species of Paramecia have been discovered in the oceans. Certain single-celled eukaryotes, such as Paramecium, are examples for exceptions to the universality of the genetic code: in their translation systems a few codons differ from...Read more

Cilia :

A cilium (plural cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Cilia are slender protuberances that project from the much larger cell body. There are two types of cilia: motile cilia and non-motile, or primary cilia, which typically serve as sensory organelles. In eukaryotes, cilia and flagella together make up a group of organelles known as undulipodia. Eukaryotic cilia are structurally identical to eukaryotic flagella, although distinctions are sometimes made according to function and/or length...Read more

Protists :

Protists (pronounced /ˈproʊtɨst/) are a diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms. Historically, protists were treated as the kingdom Protista but this group is no longer recognized in modern taxonomy. Instead, it is "better regarded as a loose grouping of 30 or 40 disparate phyla with diverse combinations of trophic modes, mechanisms of motility, cell coverings and life cycles." The protists do not have much in common besides a relatively simple organization either they are unicellular, or they are multicellular without specialized tissues. This simple cellular organization distinguishes the protists from other eukaryotes, such as fungi, animals and plants.The term protista was first used by...Read more

Euglena :

Euglena is a genus of unicellular protists, of the class Euglenoidea of the phylum Euglenozoa (also known as Euglenophyta). They are single-celled organisms. Currently, over 1,000 species of Euglena have been described. There are many to be discovered. Marin et al. (2003) revised the genus to include several species without chloroplasts, formerly classified as Astasia and Khawkinea. Some Euglena are considered to have both plant and animal features. Due to these dual characteristics, much debate has arisen to how they have evolved, and into which clade they should be placed. Euglena were originally placed in the kingdom Protista but now are classified above the...Read more

Microorganism :

Microorganisms are often illustrated using single-celled, or unicellular organisms; however, some unicellular protists are visible to the naked eye, and some multicellular species are microscopic. For more information about the topic Microorganism, read the full article at Wikipedia.org, or see the following...Read more

Protist :

What are protists?
  *   They are eukaryotes because they all have a nucleus.
  *   Most have mitochondria although some have later lost theirs (Link). Mitochondria were derived from aerobic alpha-proteobacteria that once lived       within their cells.
  *   Many have chloroplasts with which they carry on photosynthesis. Chloroplasts were derived from photosynthetic cyanobacteria living within their cells.       Many are unicellular and all groups (with one exception) contain some unicellular members. The name Protista means "the very first", and some of the       80-odd groups of organisms that we classify as protists may well have had long, independent evolutionary histories stretching as far back as 2 billion       years. But genome analysis added to other criteria show that others are derived from more complex ancestors; that is, are not "primitive"
      at all...Read more

Entamoeba Histolytica :

Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic parasitic protozoan, part of the genus Entamoeba. Predominantly infecting humans and other primates, E. histolytica is estimated to infect about 50 million people worldwide. Many older textbooks state that 10% of the world population is infected, but these figures predate the recognition that at least 90% of these infections were due to a second species, E. dispar. Mammals such as dogs and cats can become infected transiently, but are not thought to contribute significantly to transmission...Read more

Medical Microbiology :

Medical microbiology is both a branch of medicine and microbiology which deals with the study of microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites which are of medical importance and are capable of causing diseases in human beings. It includes the study of microbial pathogenesis and epidemiology and is related to the study of disease pathology and immunology. In the medical laboratory, these microbiologists also work in a subdepartment dedicated to parasitology. The discipline consists primarily of four major spheres of activity:
1. The provision of clinical consultations on the investigation, diagnosis, and treatment of patients suffering from infectious diseases.
2. The establishment and direction of infection control programs across the continuum of care.
3. Public health and communicable disease prevention and epidemiology.
4. The scientific and administrative direction of a diagnostic microbiology laboratory...Read more

Volvox :

Volvox is one of the best-known chlorophytes and is the most developed in a series of genera that form spherical colonies. Each mature Volvox colony is composed of numerous flagellate cells similar to Chlamydomonas, up to 50,000 in total, and embedded in the surface of a hollow sphere or coenobium containing an extracellular matrix made of a gelatinous glycoprotein. The cells swim in a coordinated fashion, with distinct anterior and posterior poles. The cells have eyespots, more developed near the anterior, which enable the colony to swim towards light. The individual algae in some species are interconnected by thin strands of cytoplasm, called protoplasmates...Read more

Unicellular :

You can observe the larger unicellular organisms, such as amoebae, by using a light microscope. Bacteria just appear as dots. To gather unicellular organisms for observation, one can place a cover slip on the surface of pond water, and leave it overnight. By the next morning, numerous unicellular organisms will have grown entire colonies on the bottom of the slip. Unicellular organisms replicate fast: colonies can double their size in between 30 minutes and a few hours. Unicellular organisms can be found everywhere. The oldest forms of life, unicellular organisms existed 3.8 billion years ago, if not longer. They pursue a variety of strategies for survival: photosynthesis (cyanobacteria), chemotrophy (many archaea), and heterotrophy (amoeba). Some unicellular organisms have...Read more

Spirogyra :

In almost every ditch in Holland with reasonably clean water we will in summer find slimy masses of filamentous algae, floating as scum on the surface. It looks rather distasteful, but a ditch like that is not polluted, only eutrophic (rich in nutrients). In spring these filamentous algae grow under water but when there is enough sunlight and the temperatures are not too low, they produce a lot of oxygen, sticking in little bubbles between the tangles of the algae. These come to the surface and become visible as slimy green masses. In these tangles we will find mainly three types of filamentous algae, Spirogyra, Mougeotia and Zygnema. In this article we will mainly write about Spirogyr...Read more

Microbiology Edition:

Refer this site for microbiology edition books.

Protozoan :

When you have completed this page, go to the Protozoan Quiz.The protozoa are one-celled animals and the smallest of all animals. Most of them can only be seen under a microscope. They do breathe, move, and reproduce like multicelled animals. They live in water or at least where it is damp. Animals in this group include the paramecium, the euglena and the ameba. Some protozoans are harmful to man as they can cause serious diseases. Others are helpful because they eat harmful bacteria and are food for fish and other animals...Read more

Food Microbiology :

What is Food Microbiology?
The focus of Food Microbiology is on the detection and analysis of foodborne spoilage microorganisms.
Food microbiology is the study of food micro-organisms; how we can identify and culture them, how they live, how some infect and cause disease and how we can make use of their activities.
Microbes are single-cell organisms so tiny that millions can fit into the eye of a needle.
They are the oldest form of life on earth. Microbe fossils date back more than 3.5 billion years to a time when the Earth was covered with oceans that regularly reached the boiling point, hundreds of millions of years before dinosaurs roamed the earth. The field of food microbiology is a very broad one, encompassing the study of microorganisms which have both beneficial and deleterious effects on the quality and safety of raw and processed
foods...Read more

Microbiology Lab :

A microbiology laboratory, or lab, is the primary place that a working microbiologist not in the field can be found. It is in the microbiology lab that most of the testing, culturing, and research that they do occurs. Microbiology labs contain the supplies and equipment needed for these activities, as well as provide an extremely clean, and sterile place to work...Read more

Microbiology Work :

Equipment for a microbiology work station: The common manipulations involved in microbiology require a fairly standard set of equipment. You will be assigned a work station which you will share with two or three other students should include the following set-up. Ensure that it is kept clean, all apparatus is in good repair, and solutions in adequate supply. Report problems either to the instructor or the lab manager...Read more

Microbiology Laboratory :

Microbiology Laboratory Guidebook: The Guidebook contains current protocols for analytical tests required by FSIS regulatory activities on meat, poultry and egg products.1 Specifically, microbiological methods are presented for sample preparation, isolation and identification of the major foodborne pathogenic microorganisms and their toxins, meat tissue species identification, and the detection of extraneous materials and antimicrobial residues. Media and reagent formulations, and Most Probable Number Tables are contained in...Read more

Environmental Microbiology :

Environmental microbiology is the study of the composition and physiology of microbial communities in the environment. The environment in this case means the soil, water, air and sediments covering the planet and can also include the animals and plants that inhabit these areas. Environmental microbiology also includes the study of microorganisms that exist in artificial environments such as bioreactors. Microbial life is amazingly diverse and microorganisms literally cover the planet. An average gram of soil contains approximately one billion (1,000,000,000) microbes representing probably several...Read more

Applied Microbiology :

The Society for Applied Microbiology (SfAM) is the voice of applied microbiology and the UK's oldest microbiological society. To this end, SfAM works in partnership with sister organisations and microbiological bodies such as FEMS (The Federation of European Microbiological Societies) and the Biosciences Federation (BSF) to ensure that microbiology and microbiologists are able to exert influence on policy-makers within the UK, in Europe and world-wide...Read more

Viruses :

A virus is a small infectious agent that can replicate only inside the living cells of other organisms. Most viruses are too small to be seen directly with a light microscope. Viruses infect all types of organisms, from animals and plants to bacteria and archaea. Read More

A virus particle, also known as a virion, is essentially a nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) enclosed in a protein shell or coat. Viruses are extremely small, approximately 15 - 25 nanometers in diameter. Read More

They are obligate intracellular parasites. Probably there are no cells in nature that escape infection by one or more kinds of viruses. DNA viruses can be further divided into those that have their genes on a double-stranded DNA molecule (dsDNA) and those that have their genes on a molecule of single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) Read More

Algae :

Algae are a large and diverse group of simple, typically autotrophic organisms, ranging from unicellular to multicellular forms. The largest and most complex marine forms are called seaweeds. They are photosynthetic, like plants, and simple because they lack the many distinct organs found in land plants. Read More

The word algae represent a large group of different organisms from different phylogenetic groups, representing many taxonomic divisions. In general algae can be referred to as plant-like organisms that are usually photosynthetic and aquatic, but do not have true roots, stems, leaves, vascular tissue and have simple reproductive structures. Read More

The algae are a polyphyletic and paraphyletic group of organisms. They are defined in differing ways, but are usually considered to be the photosynthetic organisms excepting plants. Using the term plants in its most restrictive fashion, the algae are then photosynthetic organisms excepting the sister group to the Charales (i.e. the land plants). Read More

Caused By Parasite :

Parasites evolve in response to defense mechanisms of their hosts. Examples of host defenses include the toxins produced by plants to deter parasitic fungi and bacteria, the complex vertebrate immune system, which can target parasites through contact with bodily fluids, and behavioural defenses. Read More

A parasite lives in a close relationship with another organism, its host, and causes it harm. The parasite is dependent on its host for its life functions. For example, viruses are common parasites. The parasite has to be in its host to live, grow, and multiply. Parasites rarely kill their hosts. A common, well-known type of a parasite is a hookworm. It is possible for humans or their pets to get them. Read More

An organism that lives in or on and takes its nourishment from another organism. A parasite cannot live independently. Parasitic diseases include infections by protozoa, helminths, and arthropods. Read More

Respiration :

Cellular respiration, also known as oxidative metabolism, is one of the key ways a cell gains useful energy. It is the set of the metabolic reactions and processes that take place in organisms cells to convert biochemical energy from nutrients into adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and then release waste products. The reactions involved in respiration are catabolic reactions that involve the oxidation of one molecule and the reduction of another. Read More

Tissue respiration is the release of energy, usually from glucose, in the tissues of all animals, green plants, fungi and bacteria. All these living things require energy for other processes such as growth, movement, sensitivity, and reproduction. The most efficient form of respiration is aerobic respiration: this requires oxygen.Read More

The amount of air inhaled and exhaled in an average human breath (tidal volume) is about one-eighth the amount that can be inhaled after exhaling as much as possible (vital capacity). Nerve centres in the brain regulate the movements of muscles of respiration (diaphragm and chest wall muscles). Blood in the pulmonary circulation brings carbon dioxide from the tissues to be exhaled and takes up oxygen from the air in the pulmonary alveoli to carry it to the heart and the rest of the body.Read More

Infectious :

An infectious disease is a clinically evident illness resulting from the presence of pathogenic microbial agents, including pathogenic viruses, pathogenic bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular parasites, and aberrant proteins known as prions. These pathogens are able to cause disease in animals and/or plants. Infectious pathologies are also called communicable diseases or transmissible diseases due to their potential of transmission from one person or species to another by a replicating agent. Read More

An infectious disease is a disease caused by bacterial, viral, fungal, or protozoan infection. Though some infectious diseases are not contagious, others may be transmitted from animal to person (bird flu and cat scratch disease) or from person to person (MRSA, HIV, and other STDs).Read More

Infectious diseases continue to be a serious health problem throughout the globe. The situation is further complicated by the emergence of drug resistant newer clones. Progress in controlling, eliminating or eradicating infectious diseases are a key part of the international health agenda. Read More

Causing :

Fungi :

A fungus (pronounced /ˈfʌŋɡəs/) is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms. The Fungi (pronounced /ˈfʌndʒaɪ/ or /ˈfʌŋɡaɪ/) are classified as a kingdom that is separate from plants, animals and bacteria. One major difference is that fungal cells have cell walls that contain chitin, unlike the cell walls of plants, which contain cellulose. Read More

Fungi are characterized by non-motile bodies (thalli) constructed of apically elongating walled filaments (hyphae), a life cycle with sexual and asexual reproduction, usually from a common thallus, haploid thalli resulting from zygotic meiosis, and heterotrophic nutrition. Spindle pole bodies, not centrioles, usually are associated with the nuclear envelope during cell division. Read More

Fungi are a kingdom of eukaryotic (their cells have nuclei) organisms. Other examples of biological kingdoms include Plantae, the plants, and Animalia, the animals. Common fungi include mushrooms, yeasts, and molds. Fungi are essential in decomposing dead organic matter in the soil, and without them, biological refuse would take much longer to degrade, making it difficult for the next generation of organisms to utilize the essential elements therein. Read More

Salmonella :

Salmonella are closely related to the Escherichia genus and are found worldwide in warm- and cold-blooded animals, in humans, and in nonliving habitats. They cause illnesses in humans and many animals, such as typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and the foodborne illness salmonellosis. Read More

Salmonellosis is an infection with Salmonella bacteria. Most people who get infected with Salmonella develop diarrhea, fever, vomiting, and abdominal cramps, 8 to 72 hours after infection. In most cases, the illness lasts 4 to 7 days; most affected persons recover without treatment.[1] However, in some persons the diarrhea may be so severe that the patient becomes dangerously dehydrated, and must be taken to a hospital. Read More

A salmonella infection is a foodborne illness caused by the salmonella bacteria carried by some animals, which can be transmitted from kitchen surfaces and can be in water, soil, animal feces, raw meats, and eggs. Salmonella infections typically affect the intestines, causing vomiting, fever, and other symptoms that usually resolve without medical treatment. Read More

Organisms :

In biology, an organism is any contiguous living system (such as animal, plant, fungus, or micro-organism). In at least some form, all organisms are capable of response to stimuli, reproduction, growth and development, and maintenance of homoeostasis as a stable whole. Read More

Plants, animals, fungi and microorganisms are examples of organisms. They all consist of monomeric units called cells. Some organisms may function independently or singly (unicellular) whereas others may form many units (multicellular) divided into specialized tissues and organs. Based on cell type, organisms may be divided into prokaryotes and eukaryotes.Read More

Traditionally, organisms were grouped by physical resemblances, but in recent times other criteria such as genetic matching have also been used. Scientific naming of species emerged in the 1600s, the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus then put it all together in the 1700s. It ended up with seven categories from least specific to most specific. Read More

Taxonomy :

In numerical taxonomy, numerical phenetics or taximetrics, the taxonomy is exclusively based on cluster analysis and neighbor joining to best-fit numerical equations that characterize measurable traits of a number of organisms. It results in a measure of evolutionary distance between species. This method has been largely superseded by cladistic analyses today; it is liable to being misled by plesiomorphic traits. Read More

The taxonomic organization of species is hierarchical. Each species belongs to a genus, each genus belongs to a family, and so on through order, class, phylum, and kingdom. Associations within the hierarchy reflect evolutionary relationships, which are deduced typically from morphological and physiological similarities between species.Read More

Many organisms belong to the same kingdom, fewer belong to the same phylum, and so on, with species being the most specific classification. A species is one group of genetically distinct, interbreeding organisms. The average genetic differences within a species are less than the average differences between that species and a closely related group of organisms. Read More

Genus :

Aristotle used the words genus and species to mean generic and specific categories. Aristotle and other pre-Darwinian scientists took the species to be distinct and unchanging, with an essence, like the chemical elements. When early observers began to develop systems of organization for living things, they began to place formerly isolated species into a context.Read More

A family contains one or more genera. Intermediate minor rankings are not shown. The composition of a genus is determined by a taxonomist. The standards for genus classification are not strictly codified, and hence different authorities often produce different classifications for genera. In the hierarchy of the binomial classification system, genus comes above species and below family.Read More

Genus and Species are the two least inclusive taxonomic groups that scientist classify living things in (species is the least inclusive. Genus and Species are both part of the scientific name of an organism. i.e. Micropterus salmoides (largemouth bass).Read More

Scientific Name :

The scientific name of a species is formed by the combination of two terms The first name (capitalized) is the genus of the organism, the second (not capitalized) is its species.Read More

Taxa found on this list are arranged alphabetically by scientific name. For the convenience of the user, a supplemental list (Appendix I) is also provided that is arranged alphabetically by common name. Please be aware that common names are not standardized and a particular plant may have more than one common name. Nomenclature for scientific and common names follows: McAvoy and Bennett, The Flora of Delaware, an Annotated Checklist, published by the Delaware Natural Heritage Program, 2001.Read More

Every recognized species on earth (at least in theory) is given a two-part scientific name. This system is called binomial nomenclature. These names are important because they allow people throughout the world to communicate unambiguously about animal species.Read More

Ameba :

The ameba is one of the simplest of the protozoa. It can be found in ponds and rivers and on the surface of the leaves of water plants. It looks like a grayish blob under a microscope. Its shape is constantly changing as it moves along. One characteristic of the ameba is its false feet, that scientists call pseudopodia. The false feet extend out and then the rest of the body follows the false feet along. The ameba eats little animals and plants. It sends out its false feet to surround the plant or animal and then pops it right into the cell!Read More

Amoeba (sometimes amœba or ameba, plural amoebae) is a genus of protozoan.The cells organelles and cytoplasm are enclosed by a cell membrane, obtaining its food through phagocytosis. Amoebae have a single large tubular pseudopod at the anterior end, and several secondary ones branching to the sides.Read More

Ameba is a popular Japanese blogging and Social Networking website. Its main competitor is Mixi. In December 2009 Ameba launched Ameba Now, a micro-blogging platform competing with Twitter. In March 2009 Ameba launched Ameba Pico, a Facebook app for the English market based on the virtual community Ameba Pigg.Read More

Parasites :

An organism that grows, feeds, and is sheltered on or in a different organism while contributing nothing to the survival of its host.
1. One who habitually takes advantage of the generosity of others without making any useful return.
2. One who lives off and flatters the rich; a sycophant. Read More

A parasite lives in a close relationship with another organism, its host, and causes it harm. The parasite is dependent on its host for its life functions. For example, viruses are common parasites. The parasite has to be in its host to live, grow, and multiply. Parasites rarely kill their hosts. A common, well-known type of a parasite is a hookworm. It is possible for humans or their pets to get them.Read More

Parasites are found worldwide, including the U.S. Of course poor sanitation increases the possibility of unwanted guests, yet soil, fruits, vegetables meats and water can be be infected.We may also pick up worms from contact with pets and other people or a barefoot walk in the garden.Read More

Organism :

In biology, an organism is any contiguous living system (such as animal, plant, fungus, or micro-organism). In at least some form, all organisms are capable of response to stimuli, reproduction, growth and development, and maintenance of homoeostasis as a stable whole.Read More

Plants, animals, fungi and microorganisms are examples of organisms. They all consist of monomeric units called cells. Some organisms may function independently or singly (unicellular) whereas others may form many units (multicellular) divided into specialized tissues and organs. Based on cell type, organisms may be divided into prokaryotes and eukaryotes.Read More

Traditionally, organisms were grouped by physical resemblances, but in recent times other criteria such as genetic matching have also been used. Scientific naming of species emerged in the 1600s, the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus then put it all together in the 1700s. It ended up with seven categories from least specific to most specific.Read More

Phylum :

Phyla are defined by a set of characters shared by all their living representatives. This has a couple of small problems - for instance, characters common to most members of a phylum may be secondarily lost by some members. It is also defined based on an arbitrary point of time (the present). However, as it is character based, it is easy to apply to the fossil record. A more major problem is that it relies on an objective decision of which group of organisms should be considered a phylum.Read More

The Kingdom Animalia is divided into 34 phyla, (singular phylum), below is a list of the phyla with their common name and approximate number of named species. You can follow the links to a page about each phyla. In order to make certain that something is available concerning each phyla quickly I have written a brief introduction to each for the time being and am now involved in expanding these.Read More

Scientists estimate that there are over 200 million insects for each single person. Thats just insects alone, and doesnt include the countless millions of spiders, crustaceans, millipedes, centipedes, etc that make up the phylum Arthropoda.Read More

Locomotion :

The term locomotion means movement or travel. It may refer to:

* Motion (physics)
* Animal locomotion
* Terrestrial locomotion
* Travel
Read More

The movement of an organism from one place to another, often by the action of appendages such as flagella, limbs, or wings. In some animals, such as fish, locomotion results from a wavelike series of muscle contractions. Read More


The muscular foot is used for locomotion and consists of several muscular layers. There are two types of walking in apple snails: with creeping locomotion and with a small wave locomotion. The creeping locomotion is consists of an extention-contraction (elongation-shortening) movement of the foot. Read More

Microbial :

A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is microscopic (too small to be seen by the naked human eye). The study of microorganisms is called microbiology, a subject that began with Anton van Leeuwenhoeks discovery of microorganisms in 1675, using a microscope of his own design.
Read More

A microbial fuel cell (MFC) or biological fuel cell is a bio-electrochemical system that drives a current by mimicking bacterial interactions found in nature. Mediator-less MFCs are a much more recent development and due to this the factors that affect optimum operation, such as the bacteria used in the system, the type of ion membrane, and the system conditions such as temperature, are not particularly well understood.Read More

Microbial growth may be described as occurring in different ways under different circumstances. Increase in both population size and population mass.Read More

Amoeba :

Amoeba (sometimes amœba or ameba, plural amoebae) is a genus of protozoan.The cells organelles and cytoplasm are enclosed by a cell membrane, obtaining its food through phagocytosis. Amoebae have a single large tubular pseudopod at the anterior end, and several secondary ones branching to the sides.Read More

The amoeba was first discovered by August Johann Rösel von Rosenhof in 1757.[2] Early naturalists referred to Amoeba as the Proteus animalcule after the Greek god Proteus who could change his shape. The name amibe was given to it by Bory de Saint-Vincent,[3] from the Greek amoibè (αμοιβή), meaning change.[4]Dientamoeba fragili was first described in 1918, and was linked to harm humans.Read More

Amoeba is the result of a multi-decade collaboration between ambient composer Robert Rich and multi-instrumentalist Rick Davies. The two first met in 1979 after Davies returned from a stretch in England and Spain, and throughout the 80s the two would collaborate on several bands, including Quote Unquote and Urdu.Read More

Microbes :

A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is microscopic (too small to be seen by the naked human eye). The study of microorganisms is called microbiology, a subject that began with Anton van Leeuwenhoeks discovery of microorganisms in 1675, using a microscope of his own design. Read More

Microbe - A microscopic living organism, such as a bacterium, fungus, protozoan or virus. Read More

Microbes like P. aeruginosa were once thought of as disorganised renegades, each cell working alone. Microbiologists like Thomas Bjarnsholt, who is battling to understand how P. aeruginosa causes chronic infection in people with cystic fibrosis, now know otherwise. Read More

Protista :

Protists (pronounced /ˈproʊtɨst/) are a diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms. Historically, protists were treated as the kingdom Protista but this group is contested in modern taxonomy.[1] Instead, it is better regarded as a loose grouping of 30 or 40 disparate phyla with diverse combinations of trophic modes, mechanisms of motility, cell coverings and life cycles. Read MoreSome members of Kingdom Protista are unicellular, others are colonial, and yet others are multicellular. Note that in the colonial forms, all the cells are similar with similar, generalized functions, whereas in the truly multicellular species, the body of the organism consists of a variety of types of cells, each type with its own specialized function. Read More

Members of the Kingdom Protista are an unusual group of organisms that were put together because they dont really seem to belong to any other group. Some protists look or act like plants, others look and act like animals, but theyre not! Read More

Microorganisms :

Microorganisms are very diverse; they include bacteria, fungi, archaea, and protists; microscopic plants (green algae); and animals such as plankton and the planarian. Some microbiologists also include viruses, but others consider these as non-living.Most microorganisms are unicellular (single-celled), but this is not universal, since some multicellular organisms are microscopic, while some unicellular protists and bacteria, like Thiomargarita namibiensis, are macroscopic and visible to the naked eye. Read More

An organism of microscopic or submicroscopic size, especially a bacterium or protozoan... Read More

Microorganisms are very tiny one-celled organisms, viruses, fungi, and bacteria, and are found everywhere in the world. They are found in all living things, plants and animal. There are more microorganisms on and inside your body than there are cells that make up your entire body. Microorganisms can live in the air, on land, and in fresh or salt water environments... Read More

Infectious Diseases :

An infectious disease is a clinically evident illness resulting from the presence of pathogenic microbial agents, including pathogenic viruses, pathogenic bacteria, fungi, protozoa, multicellular parasites, and aberrant proteins known as prions. These pathogens are able to cause disease in animals and/or plants. Infectious pathologies are also called communicable diseases or transmissible diseases due to their potential of transmission from one person or species to another by a replicating agent (as opposed to a toxin). Read More

Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi; the diseases can be spread, directly or indirectly, from one person to another. Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases of animals that can cause disease when to transmitted humans.Read More

Infectious diseases are on the rise and killing more people worldwide because of unruly urbanization and the failure of governments to control mosquito populations in tropical regions, a WHO expert said. Read More

Pathogens :

A pathogen - an infectious agent, or more commonly germ, is a biological agent that causes disease to its host. There are several substrates and pathways whereby pathogens can invade a host; the principal pathways have different episodic time frames, but soil contamination has the longest or most persistent potential for harboring a pathogen. Read More

Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that cause infectious diseases. This article deals with human pathogenic bacteria.Although the vast majority of bacteria are harmless or beneficial, quite a few bacteria are pathogenic. Pathogenic bacteria contribute to other globally important diseases, such as pneumonia, which can be caused by bacteria such as Streptococcus and Pseudomonas, and foodborne illnesses, which can be caused by bacteria such as Shigella, Campylobacter and Salmonella. Pathogenic bacteria also cause infections such as tetanus, typhoid fever, diphtheria, syphilis and leprosy. Read More

Pathogen - An agent of disease. A disease producer. The term pathogen most commonly is used to refer to infectious organisms. These include bacteria (such as staph), viruses (such as HIV), and fungi (such as yeast). Less commonly, pathogen refers to a noninfectious agent of disease such as a chemical.
Read More

Parasitic :

In general, parasites are much smaller than their host, show a high degree of specialization for their mode of life, and reproduce more quickly and in greater numbers than their hosts. Classic examples of parasitism include interactions between vertebrate hosts and diverse animals such as tapeworms, flukes, the Plasmodium species, and fleas. Parasitism is differentiated from parasitoidism, a relationship in which the host is always killed by the parasite such as moths, butterflies, ants, flies and others. Read More

A parasitic twin (also known as an asymmetrical or unequal conjoined twin) is the result of the processes that produce vanishing twins and conjoined twins, and may represent a continuum between the two. Parasitic twins occur when a twin embryo begins developing in utero, but the pair does not fully separate, and one embryo maintains dominant development at the expense of the other. Read More

Human intestinal parasites worms infection air food water cause constipation, stomach bloating, disease health problems. Other symptoms include anemia, asthma, diarrhea, digestive disorders, fatigue, low immune system, nervousness, skin rash. Most will not face this reality or even want to think about this subject and will continue in their suffering.There can be over 100 different types of parasites worms living in human bodies. Some are microscopic in size while others can be seen quite easily. These common organisms can be found everywhere in our environment, in the air we breath, in the water we drink, or in the food we eat. Read More

Stentor :

Stentor, sometimes called trumpet animalcules are a genus of filter-feeding, heterotrophic ciliate protists, representative of the heterotrichs. They are usually horn-shaped, and reaching lengths of 2 millimeters, they are among the biggest known unicellular organisms. Read More

Stentor is a very large ciliate measuring from 500-2000 microns long when extended. There are a variety of species of Stentor.Stentor coeruleus is a very large trumpet shaped, blue to blue-green ciliate with a macronucleus that looks like a string of beads (dark connected dots on the left). With many myonemes, it can contract into a ball. It may also swim freely both extended or contracted. Read More

Stentor are also known as the trumpet animalcule, Stentor belongs to the class Spirotrichea in the phylum Ciliophora. They are some of the largest protozoans known and some species can be up to two millimeters (0.08 inch) long. Oftentimes, they are larger than many microscopic multicellular organisms such as rotifers and water fleas, and have been known to eat smaller members of these groups. Read More

Plasmodium :

Plasmodium is a genus of parasitic protists. Infection by these organisms is known as malaria. The genus Plasmodium was created in 1885 by Marchiafava and Celli. Currently over 200 species of this genus are recognized and new species continue to be described.Of the over 200 known species of Plasmodium, at least 10 species infect humans. Other species infect animals, including monkeys, rodents, birds, and reptiles. The parasite always has two hosts in its life cycle: a mosquito vector and a vertebrate host. Read More

Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoan parasite, one of the species of Plasmodium that cause malaria in humans. It is transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito. P. falciparum is the most dangerous of these infections as P. falciparum (or malignant) malaria has the highest rates of complications and mortality. As of 2006 it accounted for 91% of all 247 million human malarial infections (98% in Africa). Read More

Malaria is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Plasmodium. Four species of Plasmodium can produce the disease in its various forms:
Plasmodium falciparum
Plasmodium vivax
Plasmodium ovale
Plasmodium malaria
Read More

Protozoa :

Protozoa (from the Greek words proton, meaning first, and zoa, meaning animals) is a subkingdom of microorganisms that are generally classified as unicellular non-fungal eukaryotes. Protozoans play a key role in maintaining the balance of the ecosystem.The word protozoan is originally an adjective and is used as a noun.[citation needed] While there is no exact definition for the term protozoan, most scientists use the word to refer to a unicellular heterotrophic protist, such as the amoeba and ciliate.Read More

The protozoa are one-celled animals and the smallest of all animals. Most of them can only be seen under a microscope. They do breathe, move, and reproduce like multicelled animals. They live in water or at least where it is damp. Animals in this group include the paramecium, the euglena and the ameba. Some protozoans are harmful to man as they can cause serious diseases. Others are helpful because they eat harmful bacteria and are food for fish and other animals. Read More

Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotes (organisms whose cells have nuclei) that commonly show characteristics usually associated with animals, most notably mobility and heterotrophy. Read More

Paramecium :

Paramecium is a group of unicellular ciliate protozoa, which are commonly studied as a representative of the ciliate group, and range from about 50 to 350 μm in length. Simple cilia cover the body, which allow the cell to move with a synchronous motion (like a caterpillar). Read More

A paramecium is a small one celled (unicellular) living organism that can move, digest food, and reproduce. They belong to the kingdom of Protista, which is a group (family) of similar living micro-organisms. Micro-organism means they are a very small living cell. You might be able to see one as a tiny moving speck if your eyesight is extremely good but for any detail at all you need a microscope to look at and study them. Read More

The phylum Ciliophora includes the family Paramecidae, the Paramecium. Like the other members of the phylum, Paramecium is a ciliated single celled creature. Species of Paramecium can be distinguished from other ciliates by their cigar or slipper shape and the undulating membrane within the peristome - a furrow that leads to the cytostome, where food vacuoles are formed. Most Paramecium are large as protists go, on the order of 0.5 mm long by perhaps 1/3 as wide. Read More

Microbe :

Microbe is an organism that is microscopic (too small to be seen by the naked human eye). The study of microorganisms is called microbiology, a subject that began with Anton van Leeuwenhoeks discovery of microorganisms in 1675, using a microscope of his own design. Read More

Microbe: A very tiny form of life -- microbes include bacteria, fungi, and protozoan parasites -- best visualized under a microscope. Read More

Microbe: A minute life form; a microorganism, especially a bacterium that causes disease. Not in technical use. Read More

Cilia :

A cilium (plural cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Cilia are slender protuberances that project from the much larger cell body. There are two types of cilia: motile cilia and non-motile, or primary cilia, which typically serve as sensory organelles. In eukaryotes, cilia and flagella together make up a group of organelles known as undulipodia. Eukaryotic cilia are structurally identical to eukaryotic flagella, although distinctions are sometimes made according to function and/or length. Read More

Although cilia and flagella are the same, they were given different names before their structures were studied. Typically, cells possess one or two long flagella, whereas ciliated cells have many short cilia. For example, the mammalian spermatozoon has a single flagellum, the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas has two flagella, and the unicellular protozoan Paramecium is covered with a few thousand cilia, which are used both to move and to bring in food particles. Read More

Cilia is Latin for eyelash. Common in single-cell organisms, this hair-like structures wave to move a cell around, or to move something around the cell. Some tissues in the human body also have cilia. In the body, cilia are responsible for protecting a person from germs in the lungs and for pushing an ovum down the fallopian tube, among other tasks. Similar to cilia, flagella are longer such hairs, usually found in ones or twos, such as the tail of a sperm. They share many characteristics with cilia, but they also occur on prokaryotes, which are organisms with cells that do not contain a nucleus. Read More

Protists :

Protists (pronounced /ˈproʊtɨst/) are a diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms. Historically, protists were treated as the kingdom Protista but this group is contested in modern taxonomy. Instead, it is better regarded as a loose grouping of 30 or 40 disparate phyla with diverse combinations of trophic modes, mechanisms of motility, cell coverings and life cycles. Read More

The name Protista means the very first, and some of the 80-odd groups of organisms that we classify as protists may well have had long, independent evolutionary histories stretching as far back as 2 billion years. But genome analysis added to other criteria show that others are derived from more complex ancestors; that is, are not primitive at all. Read More

Members of the Kingdom Protista are an unusual group of organisms that were put together because they dont really seem to belong to any other group. Some protists look or act like plants, others look and act like animals, but theyre not!In some ways, the Kingdom Protista is home for the leftover organisms that couldnt be classified elsewhere. You might not think a tiny one-celled amoeba has much in common with a giant sea kelp, but theyre both members of this kingdom. Read More

Euglena :

Euglena is a genus of unicellular protists, of the class Euglenoidea of the phylum Euglenozoa (also known as Euglenophyta). They are single-celled organisms. Currently, over 1,000 species of Euglena have been described. There are many to be discovered. Marin et al. (2003) revised the genus to include several species without chloroplasts, formerly classified as Astasia and Khawkinea. Read More

The euglena is unique because it is sort of like a plant and also like an animal. It is pear shaped. It has a whippy tail called a flagellum that allows it to move through the water. The euglena is different than other protozoans because it has chlorophyll in it, the substance that plants contain to make their own food. The euglena is then able to make its own food like a plant when it is in the sunlight. Read More

Euglena are unicellular organisms classified into the Kingdom Protista, and the Phylum Euglenophyta. All euglena have chloroplasts and can make their own food by photosynthesis. They are not completely autotrophic though, euglena can also absorb food from their environment; euglena usually live in quiet ponds or puddles. Euglena move by a flagellum (plural flagella), which is a long whip-like structure that acts like a little motor. Read More

Microorganism :

Microorganisms are very diverse; they include bacteria, fungi, archaea, and protists; microscopic plants (green algae); and animals such as plankton and the planarian. Some microbiologists also include viruses, but others consider these as non-living.Most microorganisms are unicellular (single-celled), but this is not universal, since some multicellular organisms are microscopic, while some unicellular protists and bacteria, like Thiomargarita namibiensis, are macroscopic and visible to the naked eye. Read More

Microorganisms are often illustrated using single-celled, or unicellular organisms; however, some unicellular protists are visible to the naked eye, and some multicellular species are microscopic. Read More

Microorganisms are very tiny one-celled organisms, viruses, fungi, and bacteria, and are found everywhere in the world. They are found in all living things, plants and animal. There are more microorganisms on and inside your body than there are cells that make up your entire body. Microorganisms can live in the air, on land, and in fresh or salt water environments. Some of them, pathogens, can be harmful and causes diseases, but there are some microorganisms that are needed for living things to survive. Read More

Protist :

Protists (pronounced /ˈproʊtɨst/) are a diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms. Historically, protists were treated as the kingdom Protista but this group is contested in modern taxonomy.Instead, it is better regarded as a loose grouping of 30 or 40 disparate phyla with diverse combinations of trophic modes, mechanisms of motility, cell coverings and life cycles. Read More

Protists belong to the Kingdom Protista, which include mostly unicellular organisms that do not fit into the other kingdoms.
Characteristics of Protists
* mostly unicellular, some are multicellular (algae)
* can be heterotrophic or autotrophic
Read More

Entamoeba Histolytica :

Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic parasitic protozoan, part of the genus Entamoeba. Predominantly infecting humans and other primates, E. histolytica is estimated to infect about 50 million people worldwide. Many older textbooks state that 10% of the world population is infected, but these figures predate the recognition that at least 90% of these infections were due to a second species, E. dispar. Read More

Life cycle of Entamoeba histolytica: the disease has a world-wide distribution with a higher prevalence in tropical and subtropical countries. 10% of the world population carries the protozoa. Read More

The genome of Entamoeba histolytica contains multi-copy DNA circles that easily clone in small insert libraries. Protocols (developed by Dr Egbert Tannich) have been employed to remove these from the genomic DNA to avoid redundancy. Circle free Genomic libraries were constructed in the pUC18 vector, However, we estimate the total quantity of clones containing multi-copy circle DNA to be around 5%. Read More

Medical Microbiology :

Medical microbiology is both a branch of medicine and microbiology which deals with the study of microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites which are of medical importance and are capable of causing diseases in human beings. It includes the study of microbial pathogenesis and epidemiology and is related to the study of disease pathology and immunology. In the medical laboratory, these microbiologists also work in a subdepartment dedicated to parasitology. Read More

Medical Microbiologist as said are the detective of the health care world. Microbiology is the study of role of micro-organisms in animal and human diseases and the ways to prevent and cure them. It is the field of applied biology and chemistry, and would interest students interested in the delivery of health services using analytical techniques, he/she searches for clues both to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of disease and to help patient stay healthy. Read More

Medical microbiologists identify the agent causing an infectious disease and try and devise methods to eliminate the agent or the virus. Frequently they are involved in tracking down new, unidentified pathogens such as the bacterium that cause plague, legionnaires disease and the virus responsible for AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome), SARS(Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) and Avian flu. Read More

Volvox :

Volvox is one of the best-known chlorophytes and is the most developed in a series of genera that form spherical colonies. Each mature Volvox colony is composed of numerous flagellate cells similar to Chlamydomonas, up to 50,000 in total, and embedded in the surface of a hollow sphere or coenobium containing an extracellular matrix made of a gelatinous glycoprotein. Read More

Volvox is a Chlorophyte, or green alga. It exists as a grand spherical colony. Each little alga within the colony bears two flagella, whip-like hairs. The individual alga are connected to each other by thin strands of cytoplasm that enable the whole colony to swim in a coordinated fashion. The individual alga also have small red eye spots. Read More

Volvox are colonial flagellates and a very popular organism for classroom observations. The colony is large, measuring from 100-6000 microns across. The colony is comprised of many single, bi-flagellated cells connected together by protoplasmic strands. It forms a hollow, green sphere. Individual cells have a red eyespot and, with chloroplasts, can make food from sunlight. Read More

Unicellular :

Unicellular organisms are organisms that only have one cell. They are divided into two quite different types, from different classification kingdoms.
* The prokaryotes, bacteria and archaea, have cells with no nucleus and a simple cell structure.
* Eukaryotes have a nucleus, and a more complex cell structure. Read More

Any living being consisting of a single cell. Most are invisible without a microscope but a few, such as the giant amoeba, may be visible to the naked eye. The main groups of unicellular organisms are bacteria, archaea, protozoa, unicellular algae, and unicellular fungi or yeasts. Some become disease-causing agents. Read More

Descriptive of tissues, organs, or organisms that consist of a single cell. Unicellular organisms include bacteria, archaea, protists, and certain algae and fungi. Certain algae and fungi that are multicellular have unicellular reproductive organs. Read More

Spirogyra :

Spirogyra is a genus of filamentous green algae of the order Zygnematales, named for the helical or spiral arrangement of the chloroplasts that is diagnostic of the genus. It is commonly found in freshwater areas, and there are more than 400 species of Spirogyra in the world. Spirogyra measures approximately 10 to 100μm in width and may stretch centimeters long. Read More

The really interesting part comes as Spirogyra reproduces sexually. When two filaments are close together, the process starts. Cell outgrowths form connections between the filaments and a sort of ladder is formed. The contents of the cells in one filament will go through the connection tubes to the cells in the other filament. A zygospore is formed with a thick cell wall, round or oval and with a brownish colour.Read More

Spirogyra is a filamentous algae that can be found in almost every pond or ditch. At the end of the summer Spirogyra and its relatives Mougeotia and Zygnema grow to such numbers that they form a thick scum on the surface of the water. Not many people know what beauty lies hidden inside this formless mass. The chloroplasts are arranged in a variety of ways. In Spirogyra, it runs through the cell like a spiral.Read More

Microbiology Edition

Similarly, a couple of books of Contemporary Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (4th edition) were purchased at Rs 4,498.92 from the said book outlet after having purchased the same books at Rs 3,677.35 from another book store in the market. Read More

During this time of year, with many people sneezing as a result of allergies, the heightened energy in the immune system might not be a good thing (when there is no real threat of contagious illness), said Brown. The study is published in the current edition of the journal Psychological Science. Read More

The selling non-majors microbiology book is praised for its straightforward presentation of complex topics, careful balance of concepts and applications, and proven art that teaches. In its Tenth Edition, Tortora/Funke/Case responds to the #1 challenge of the microbiology course: teaching a wide range of reader levels, while still addressing reader under-preparedness. The Tenth Edition meets readers at their respective skill levels. Read More

Protozoan

Protozoa (from the Greek words proton, meaning first, and zoa, meaning animals) is a subkingdom of microorganisms that are generally classified as unicellular non-fungal eukaryotes. Protozoans play a key role in maintaining the balance of the ecosystem. Read More

Protozoan - Any of a large group of single-celled, usually microscopic, eukaryotic organisms, such as amoebas, ciliates, flagellates, and sporozoans. Read More

Free-living protozoan groups that inhabit soils and natural waters are extremely diverse, not only in their structure but also in the manner in which they feed, reproduce, and move. Among the mainly free-living groups are the flagellates (Mastigophora). Read More

Ameba Genus

Freshwater or marine or parasitic protozoa that form temporary pseudopods for feeding and rhizopod, rhizopodan - protozoa characterized by a pseudopod, endameba - any ameba of the genus Endamoeba
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Ameba Scientific Name

Amoeba is actually a specific genus so you have it’s scientific name (written in italics and with a capital A). But if you mean the general group of celled organisms other than animals, plants, or fungi then Protists (Kingdom).
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Ameba
The amoeba was first discovered by August Johann Rösel von Rosenhof in 1757.[2] Early naturalists referred to Amoeba as the Proteus animalcule after the Greek god Proteus who could change his shape. The name “amibe” was given to it by Bory de Saint-Vincent,[3] from the Greek amoibè (αμοιβή), meaning change.[4]Dientamoeba fragili was first described in 1918, and was linked to harm humans.
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Parasites
In general, parasites are much smaller than their host, show a high degree of specialization for their mode of life, and reproduce more quickly and in greater numbers than their hosts. Classic examples of parasitism include interactions between vertebrate hosts and diverse animals such as tapeworms, flukes, the Plasmodium species, and fleas. Parasitism is differentiated from parasitoidism, a relationship in which the host is always killed by the parasite such as moths, butterflies, ants, flies and others.
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Believe it or not - 90% of humans will be infected by parasites in their lifetime! I was honestly scared to death when I read that statistic, but fortunately there are all-natural parasite cleansing products capable of killing parasites, killing parasite eggs, and ultimately guarding your body against parasite infections like pinworms, ringworms, roundworms, and tapeworms. Our #1 recommended cleanse contains wormwood, black walnut hulls, garlic, and cloves along with a dozen other herbs. Don’t buy a dozen different bottles of herbs, hoping to get the right dosage. Take 1 simple pill and kill parasites fast!
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Organism
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.[1] In particular, model organisms are widely used to explore potential causes and treatments for human disease when human experimentation would be unfeasible or unethical.
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Any member of a kingdom (Protista) of diverse eukaryotes, including algae, protozoans, and lower fungi ( see fungus). Most are single-celled organisms, though the algae tend to be multicellular. Many can move, mainly by using flagella ( see flagellum), cilia ( see cilium), or footlike extensions (pseudopodia). The kingdom was developed to accommodate intermediate organisms that, even though they possessed some plant or animal characteristics, did not exhibit the specialized features indicative of those groups. Some protists are considered the ancestors of multicellular plants, animals, and fungi.
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Phylum
• a taxonomic rank. Other well-known ranks are life, domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, genus, and species, with family fitting between order and genus. As for the other well-known ranks, there is the option of an immediately lower rank, indicated by the prefix sub-: subfamily (Latin: subfamilia).
• a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank. In that case the plural is families (Latin familiae)
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Examples: Class Mammalia (mammals), Class Aves (birds) and Class Ascidiacea (sea squirts) all belong to Chordate Phylum, which is a group of animals that have notochords at some time in their life cycle. Aside from Chordata, other well known phyla are the Mollusca, Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida, Arthropoda and Echinodermata, which all belong to Kingdom Animalia.
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Microbial Amoeba
Amoebas are some of the most famous members of the microbial world. Amoebas have no fixed shape. Instead, these blobs of protoplasm constantly shift their shape while moving and eating. An amoeba moves by extending part of its “body”, called a psuedopod (“false foot”), and then using the psuedopod to drag itself to the new location. Amoebas also use their shape-shifting abilities while feeding; they surround their food with extended psuedopodia, engulfing their prey.
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This new 2010 paper from the Journal of Environmental Quality takes a close look at the presence of a pathogenic amoeba, Naegleria fowleri, in drinking water from various wells and at different times of year . The authors find a new link between the bacterial community of the water in relation to the presence or absence of N. fowleri amoeba.
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Microbes

Does Pasture Irrigation Increase Groundwater Contamination? Research Finds Little to No Transport of Microbes from Cow Pastures Into Groundwater. Concern about microbial contamination of groundwater from foraging dairy cows has increased as spray irrigation practices in New Zealand have increased over the years. Bacteria capable of living in both animals and humans are commonly found in cow manure. Addressing the lack of research on the .... Read More

Protista
Members of the Kingdom Protista are an unusual group of organisms that were put together because they don’t really seem to belong to any other group. Some protists look or act like plants, others look and act like animals, but they’re not!
In some ways, the Kingdom Protista is home for the “leftover” organisms that couldn’t be classified elsewhere. You might not think a tiny one-celled amoeba has much in common with a giant sea kelp, but they’re both members of this kingdom... Read More

Kingdom Protista :
Kingdom Protista Characteristics 1) Unicellular 2) Organelles 3) Autotroph or Heterotroph
3 Types of Protists :
3 Types of Protists 1) Animallike Heterotrophs 2) Plantlike Autotrophs 3) Funguslike Heterotrophs

Animallike Protists :
Animallike Protists 1) Sarcodines Move by extensions of the cell membrane and cytoplasm called pseudopods. “False Feet” Example: Ameba
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Microorganisms
Effective Microorganisms, aka EM Technology, is a trademarked term now commonly used to describe a proprietary blend of 3 or more types of predominantly anaerobic organisms that was originally marketed as EM-1 Microbial Inoculant but is now marketed by a plethora of companies under various names, each with their own proprietary blend. “EM Technology” uses a laboratory cultured mixture of microorganisms consisting mainly of lactic acid bacteria, purple bacteria, and yeast which co-exist for the benefit of whichever environment they are introduced, as has been claimed by the various em-like culture purveyors. It is reported[1] to include: Read More

Let’s study the wee ones of the world known as the microbes or the microorganisms. If you spend your life studying them, you would be a microbiologist. These are the smallest of the small and the simplest of the simple. Some of them, like viruses, may not even be alive as we currently define life. What makes a microbe? We suppose you need a microscope to see them. That’s about it. There is a huge variety of creatures in this section. They can work alone or in colonies. They can help you or hurt you. Most important fact is that they make up the largest number of living organisms on the planet. It helps to be that small. It’s not millions, billions, or trillions. There are trillions of trillions of trillions of microbes around the Earth.
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Infectious Diseases

• Lists of diseases
• Infectious disease
• Virus diseases
• List of infectious diseases causing flu-like syndrome
• Transmissible spongiform encephalopathy
• List of ICD-9 codes 001-139: infectious and parasitic diseases
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Infectious diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites or fungi; the diseases can be spread, directly or indirectly, from one person to another. Zoonotic diseases are infectious diseases of animals that can cause disease when to transmitted humans.
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Pathogen

Pathogen: An agent of disease. A disease producer. The term pathogen most commonly is used to refer to infectious organisms. These include bacteria (such as staph), viruses (such as HIV), and fungi (such as yeast). Less commonly, pathogen refers to a noninfectious agent of disease such as a chemical.
The term pathogen was devised about 1880 and was compounded from patho- meaning disease + -gen indicating a producer. Hence, a disease producer.
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An additional factor contributing to increases in morbidity and mortality for many infectious diseases involves genetic recombination events or gene/pathogenicity island acquisitions. These events can occur via either horizontal gene transfer or conjugation/introgression, leading to novel pathogenic genotypes. This form of virulence evolution has been well characterized in bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic human diseases. The ability to cause damage to mammalian hosts is a common theme among all microbial pathogens, making it a key aspect of host-pathogen studies.
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Parasitic
A parasitic twin (also known as an asymmetrical or unequal conjoined twin) is the result of the processes that produce vanishing twins and conjoined twins, and may represent a continuum between the two. Parasitic twins occur when a twin embryo begins developing in utero, but the pair does not fully separate, and one embryo maintains dominant development at the expense of the other. Unlike conjoined twins, one ceases development during gestation and is vestigial to a mostly fully-formed, otherwise healthy individual twin. The undeveloped twin is defined as parasitic, rather than conjoined, because it is incompletely formed or wholly dependent on the body functions of the complete fetus. The independent twin is called the autosite.
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Parasite: An organism that lives in or on and takes its nourishment from another organism. A parasite cannot live independently.
Parasitic diseases include infections by protozoa, helminths, and arthropods:
• Protozoa -- Malaria is caused by plasmodium, a protozoa, a single-cell organism that can only divide within its host organism.
• Helminths -- Schistosomiasis, another set of very important parasitic diseases, is caused by a helminth (a worm).
• Arthropods -- The arthropods include insects and arachnids (spiders, etc.), a number of which can act as vectors (carriers) of parasitic diseases.
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Stentor
Stentor is a very large ciliate measuring from 500-2000 microns long when extended. There are a variety of species of Stentor. Stentor coeruleus is a very large trumpet shaped, blue to blue-green ciliate with a macronucleus that looks like a string of beads (dark connected dots on the left). With many myonemes, it can contract into a ball. It may also swim freely both extended or contracted.
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Plasmodium

Plasmodium falciparum is a protozoan parasite, one of the species of Plasmodium that cause malaria in humans. It is transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito. P. falciparum is the most dangerous of these infections as P. falciparum (or malignant) malaria has the highest rates of complications and mortality. As of 2006 it accounted for 91% of all 247 million human malarial infections (98% in Africa) and 90% of the deaths[citation needed]. It is more prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa than in other regions of the world; in most African countries, more than 75% of cases were due to P.falciparum, whereas in most other countries with malaria
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Members of the genus Plasmodium are eukaryotic microbes. Therefore, the cell and molecular biology of Plasmodium will be similar to other eukaryotes. A unique feature of the malarial parasite is its intracellular lifestyle. Because of its intracellular location the parasite has an intimate relationship with its host cell which can be described at the cellular and molecular levels. In particular, the parasite must enter the host cell, and once inside, it modifies the host cell. The molecular and cellular biology of host-parasite interactions involved in these two processes will be discussed.
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Protozoa
The protozoa are one-celled animals and the smallest of all animals. Most of them can only be seen under a microscope. They do breathe, move, and reproduce like multicelled animals. They live in water or at least where it is damp. Animals in this group include the paramecium, the euglena and the ameba.  Some protozoans are harmful to man as they can cause serious diseases. Others are helpful because they eat harmful bacteria and are food for fish and other animals.
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Any of a group of small (usually microscopic) single-celled protists. They are found in most soils, fresh water, and oceans. While most are solitary individuals, various colonial forms exist. The taxonomic relationships of protozoans to one another and to other protists continue to be revised. The smallest known protozoans are tiny blood parasites less than 2 microns long; the largest may be 16 mm long and visible to the naked eye. Protozoan shapes vary, but all share such eukaryotic features as lipid-protein membranes and membrane-enclosed vacuoles and organelles (see eukaryote).
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Paramecium
Deutsch: Paramecium aurelia - Optisches Mikroskop. Paramecium aurelia, der bekannteste von allen ciliaten. Die Blasen innerhalb der Zelle sind Vakuolen. Die gesamte Oberfläche ist mit Wimpern umgeben, die durch ihre schnelle Bewegung verwischt werden.
English: Paramecium aurelia. Optical microscope. Paramecium aurelia, the best known of all ciliates. The bubbles throughout the cell are vacuoles. The entire surface is covered in cilia, which are blurred by their rapid movement.
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The phylum Ciliophora includes the family Paramecidae, the Paramecium. Like the other members of the phylum, Paramecium is a ciliated single celled creature. Species of Paramecium can be distinguished from other ciliates by their cigar or slipper shape and the undulating membrane within the peristome - a furrow that leads to the cytostome, where food vacuoles are formed. Most Paramecium are large as protists go, on the order of 0.5 mm long by perhaps 1/3 as wide.
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Cilia

Cilia is Latin for “eyelash.” Common in single-cell organisms, this hair-like structures wave to move a cell around, or to move something around the cell. Some tissues in the human body also have cilia.In the body, cilia are responsible for protecting a person from germs in the lungs and for pushing an ovum down the fallopian tube, among other tasks.
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Swimming is the major form of movement exhibited by sperm and by many protozoans. Some cells are propelled at velocities approaching 1 mm/s by the beating of cilia and flagella, flexible membrane extensions of the cell. Cilia and flagella range in length from a few microns to more than 2 mm in the case of some insect sperm flagella.
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Protists
• Many are unicellular and all groups (with one exception) contain some unicellular members.
• The name Protista means “the very first”, and some of the 80-odd groups of organisms that we classify as protists may well have had long, independent evolutionary histories stretching as far back as 2 billion years. But genome analysis added to other criteria show that others are derived from more complex ancestors; that is, are not “primitive” at all.
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Most are single-celled organisms, though the algae tend to be multicellular. Many can move, mainly by using flagella (see flagellum), cilia (see cilium), or footlike extensions (pseudopodia). The kingdom was developed to accommodate intermediate organisms that, even though they possessed some plant or animal characteristics, did not exhibit the specialized features indicative of those groups. Some protists are considered the ancestors of multicellular plants, animals, and fungi. The term was first suggested in 1866 by Ernst Haeckel. With ... (100 of 10234 words)
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Euglena
Euglena are unicellular organisms classified into the Kingdom Protista, and the Phylum Euglenophyta. All euglena have chloroplasts and can make their own food by photosynthesis. They are not completely autotrophic though, euglena can also absorb food from their environment; euglena usually live in quiet ponds or puddles.
Euglena move by a flagellum (plural ‚ flagella), which is a long whip-like structure that acts like a little motor. The flagellum is located on the anterior (front) end, and twirls in such a way as to pull the cell through the water. It is attached at an inward pocket called the reservoir. Color the reservoir grey and the flagellum black.
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Structure of a euglena: flagellate freshwater protozoan. It is composed of chlorophyll and has a rudimentary eye.
Reservoir: part of a euglena used for storage.
Nucleus: central organelle of a euglena.
Contractile vacuole: cavity of the euglena that is able to contract.
Pellicle: membrane that envelops a euglena.
Chloroplast: organelle of the euglena responsible for photosynthesis.
Nucleolus: spherical body that contains the nucleus of a euglena.
Stigma: light-sensitive part of a euglena.
Flagellum: long, mobile filament used by the euglena for locomotion.
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Microorganism
A microorganism (also spelled micro organism or micro-organism) or microbe is an organism that is microscopic (too small to be seen by the naked human eye). The study of microorganisms is called microbiology, a subject that began with Anton van Leeuwenhoek’s discovery of microorganisms in 1675, using a microscope of his own design.
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Effective Microorganisms, aka EM Technology, is a trademarked term now commonly used to describe a proprietary blend of 3 or more types of predominantly anaerobic organisms that was originally marketed as EM-1 Microbial Inoculant but is now marketed by a plethora of companies under various names, each with their own proprietary blend. “EM Technology” uses a laboratory cultured mixture of microorganisms consisting mainly of lactic acid bacteria, purple bacteria, and yeast which co-exist for the benefit of whichever environment they are introduced, as has been claimed by the various em-like culture purveyors. It is reported[1] to include:
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Protist
Protists (pronounced /ˈproʊtɨst/) are a diverse group of eukaryotic microorganisms. Historically, protists were treated as the kingdom Protista but this group is contested in modern taxonomy.[1] Instead, it is “better regarded as a loose grouping of 30 or 40 disparate phyla with diverse combinations of trophic modes, mechanisms of motility, cell coverings and life cycles.”[2]
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Protist is the international forum for reporting substantial and novel findings in any area of research on protists.
The criteria for acceptance of manuscripts are scientific excellence, significance, and interest for a broad readership. Suitable subject areas include: molecular, cell and developmental biology, biochemistry, systematics and phylogeny, and ecology of protists. Both autotrophic and heterotrophic protists as well as parasites are covered.
The journal publishes original papers, short historical perspectives and includes a news and views section.
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Entamoeba Histolytica
Entamoeba histolytica is the causal agent of amoebic dysentery and amoebic liver abscess. With an estimated 40 million cases worldwide and 100,000 deaths, it is responsible for agreat deal of suffering, particularly in the developing world.
The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Pathogen Sequencing Unit, in collaboration with Graham Clark at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, is sequencing the genome of E. histolytica HM-1:IMSS strain. The E. histolytica genome is ~24 Mb in size and split into 14 chromosomes. A whole genome shotgun sequence (8X coverage) has been produced in collaboration with The Institute of Genome Research and assembled into 888 scaffolds.
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Entamoeba histolytica: This is a single celled parasitic animal, i.e., a protozoa, that infects predominantly humans and other primates. Diverse mammals such as dogs and cats can ... more about Entamoeba histolytica.
Entamoeba histolytica: Parasitic digestive infection. More detailed information about the symptoms, causes, and treatments of Entamoeba histolytica is available below.
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Medical Microbiology
Medical Microbiology begins with a review of the immune system, focusing on the body’s response to invading microorganisms. Bacteria are then covered, first with a series of chapters presenting the general concepts of bacterial microbiology and then with chapters detailing the major bacterial pathogenes of humans. Similar sections cover virology, mycology, and parasitology. In each section, the introductory chapters stress the mechanisms of infection characteristic of that type of microorganism, thus providing the reader with a framework for understanding rather than memorizing the clinical behavior of the pathogens. The final section of the book Introduction to Infectious Diseases, is arranged by organ system and provides transition for clinical considerations. Read More

“The Association shall promote scientific knowledge of Medical Microbiology and its related subjects, plan and execute projects for the advancement of this knowledge, improve education in Medical Microbiology and promote any programme of professional and ethical standing of Medical Microbiologists in India”
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Volvox
Algae are simple plant organisms found in all wet environments. They range in size from microscopic forms to the simple macroscopic forms of ‘pondweeds’, and the large seaweeds. All are interesting to study but microscopists generally agree that one of the most beautiful to behold is Volvox. These are spherical colonies of green cells clinging to a semi-transparent hollow ball of mucilage. A single colony may consist of over 500 cells, each one with a tiny pair of whip-like tails (flagella) - and all cells undulating their flagella in unison, propelling the colony through the water.
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Wouldn’t it be an interesting idea to make a list of the seven wonders of the micro world? Perhaps a list of seven would be too small since there are so many wonderful microscopic organisms. But a sure candidate for such a ‘micro world hit list’ would be Volvox.
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Unicellular
Unicellular organisms are organisms that only have one cell. They are divided into two quite different types, from different classification kingdoms.
• The prokaryotes, bacteria and archaea, have cells with no nucleus and a simple cell structure.
• Eukaryotes have a nucleus, and a more complex cell structure.
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Any living being consisting of a single cell. Most are invisible without a microscope but a few, such as the giant amoeba, may be visible to the naked eye. The main groups of unicellular organisms are bacteria, archaea, protozoa, unicellular algae, and unicellular fungi or yeasts. Some become disease-causing agents (pathogens).
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Spirogyra
Spirogyra is a genus of filamentous green algae of the order Zygnematales, named for the helical or spiral arrangement of the chloroplasts that is diagnostic of the genus. It is commonly found in freshwater areas, and there are more than 400 species of Spirogyra in the world.[1] Spirogyra measures approximately 10 to 100μm in width and may stretch centimeters long.
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Protozoan
Protozoa (from the Greek words proton, meaning “first”, and zoa, meaning “animals”) is a subkingdom[1] of microorganisms that are generally classified as unicellular non-fungal eukaryotes. Protozoans play a key role in maintaining the balance of the ecosystem. The word protozoan is originally an adjective and is used as a noun.[citation needed] While there is no exact definition for the term protozoan, most scientists use the word to refer to a unicellular heterotrophic protist, such as the amoeba and ciliate. The term algae is used for microorganisms that photosynthesize. However, the distinction between protozoa and algae is often vague. For example, the algae Dinobryon has chloroplasts for photosynthesis, but it can also feed on organic matter and is motile. Protozoans are generally referred to as animal-like protists.
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Protozoan infections are parasitic diseases organisms formerly classified in the Kingdom Protozoa. They include organisms classified in Amoebozoa, Excavata, and Chromalveolata.
Examples include Entamoeba histolytica, [Malaria], and Giardia lamblia. The species traditionally “protozoa” are not closely related to each other, and have only superficial similarities (eukaryotic, unicellular, motile, though with exceptions.) The terms “protozoa” (and protist) are usually discouraged in the modern biosciences. However, this terminology is still encountered in medicine. This is partially because of the conservative character of medical classification, and partially due to the necessity of making identifications of organisms based upon appearances and not upon DNA.
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Food Microbiology
Food Microbiology publishes original research articles, short communications, review papers, letters, news items and book reviews dealing with all aspects of the microbiology of foods. The editors aim to publish manuscripts of the highest quality which are both relevant and applicable to the broad field.
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International Journal of Food Microbiology publishes contributions dealing with all aspects of food microbiology. Papers submitted for publication must be novel and of high scientific quality and impact. International Journal of Food Microbiology does not publish preliminary or confirmatory results. Full-length original research papers, short
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Microbiology Lab
The following procedure and protocol manuals are provided for our microbiology laboratory and are available as an educational reference for other laboratories. All manuals are in PDF format, and will require installation of Adobe Acrobat Reader to view, if not already installed.
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General Microbiology Lab Skills
Objectives:
The students will:
• Become familiar with the different types of equipment needed to the experiments in the pGLO kit.
• Become more familiar with the techniques need to do the pGLO kit.
• Understand that skill are necessary for safety in the lab.
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Microbiology Work
A microbiologist is a scientist who works in the field of microbiology. Microbiologists study organisms called microbes. Microbes can take the form of bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protists. One of the microbiologists main research aim is to find out how microbes affect the world around them.
Specialists in the broad field of microbiology include:
• Bacteriologists, who work in the field of bacteriology and study bacteria.
• Environmental microbiologists - work in the field of environmental microbiology and study microbial processes in the environment.
• Food microbiologists, who work in the food industry and study pathogenic microorganisms that cause foodborne illness and spoilage.
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Many microbiologists work for universities, where they teach and do research. Others work at medical centers or in private industry. Some work for government agencies. Although their jobs have different aspects and responsibilities, most microbiologists do some research or laboratory work. They use special equipment to study microorganisms including light microscopes, electron microscopes, centrifuges, glass tubes, slides, and computers. They are often assisted by biological technicians.
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Microbiology Laboratory
The following procedure and protocol manuals are provided for our microbiology laboratory and are available as an educational reference for other laboratories. All manuals are in PDF format, and will require installation of Adobe Acrobat Reader to view, if not already installed.
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The National Microbiology Laboratory (NML) is a division of the Public Health Agency of Canada that is located in the Canadian Science Centre for Human and Animal Health in Winnipeg, Manitoba. This modern state-of-the-art facility houses the NML’s Biological Safety Level 4 (BSL-4) containment laboratory, currently Canada’s only BSL-4 laboratory. As a maximum containment facility, the NML deals with the most serious human and animal pathogens and diseases, such as SARS, Ebola and Lassa fever. It was the facility chosen for the reconstruction of the 1918 influenza virus.[1]
The research centre is a member of the US Bioterrorism Response Network.
At the onset of the 2009 swine flu outbreak the NML, with the U.S. Centers for Disease Control were first to identify the specific virus and produce the necessary reagents to positively test for it …Read More

Environmental Microbiology
Environmental Microbiology is devoted to the advancement of our understanding of microbial interactions and microbial processes in the environment, and publishes original research reporting significant advances in or relating to this subject.
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The study of how microorganisms affect the earth and its atmosphere is called environmental microbiology or microbial ecology.
Environmental microbiology is the study of microbes in the environment and their interactions with each other. Microbes are the tiniest creatures on Earth, yet despite their small size, they have a have a huge impact on us and on our environment.
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Applied Microbiology
Journal of Applied Microbiology publishes high quality research and review papers on novel aspects of applied microbiology; including environmental, food, agricultural, medical, pharmaceutical, veterinary, soil, systematics, water and biodeterioration. Papers reporting work on all microorganisms, including viruses, are welcomed providing they demonstrate new findings of significance to the field as a whole
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Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology addresses a range of topics, presenting full-length papers and mini-reviews of new and emerging products, processes and technologies. Coverage includes prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells, relevant enzymes and proteins; applied genetics and molecular biotechnology; genomics and proteomics; applied microbial and cell physiology; environmental biotechnology; process and products and more.
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1. Protozoa - Introduction

1. Protozoa - Introduction

Click Here to Read about Protozoa Basics

Did You Know That Protozoa Cause The Following Threats to Public Health?

Protozoa are unicellular eukaryotes, meaning that they have characteristic organelles. They are relatively large and some are visible with the naked eye. They occupy a vast array of habitats and niches and have organelles similar to those found in other eukaryotic cells as well as...Read More

Click Here to View the Supplemental Guide to Planktonic Protozoa

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2. Protozoa - Types

Types of Intestinal Parasites

The main categories of parasites that affect humans are protozoa and so-called "worms." Both are endoparasites, parasitic beings that live inside the host to their benefit and the host's harm. Ectoparasites live on the outside of the...
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Giants of the Protozoa

The Blake Ridge is a large sediment deposit located approximately 400 km east of Charleston, South Carolina on the continental slope and rise of the United States. The crest of the ridge extends in a direction that is...Read More

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3. Protozoa - Research

Symbiosis between Termites; and Their Intestinal Protozoa

A correlation between the presence of intestinal protozoa in termites and a wood-feeding habit was postulated by Imms,2 and this, if true, as Imms pointed out, indicates a possible symbiotic relationship between termites and their...Read More

Intestinal Protozoa in Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) in Western Iran

A total of 12 gastrointestinal tracts of wild boars (Sus scrofa) from western Iran (Luristan) were examined for protozoan infection between September 2000 and November 2001. Of 12 boars examined, 67% harbored one or more species of the...Read More

Zooflagellate Phylogeny and the Systematics of Protozoa

In the six kingdom system of life, the kingdom Protozoa occupies a pivotal position between the ancestral kingdom Bacteria and the four derived eukaryotic kingdoms, Animalia, Plantae,Fungi, and Chromista (1). The diversification of the protozoans is...Read More

Vital Staining and Reduction of Vital Stains by Protozoa

It is well known that fresh animal and plant tissues and milk have the power of reducing methylene blue to the leuco-base. This is supposed to be brought about by the hydrogen liberated in the decomposition of water by a reducase. The reducase in turn requires the...Read More

Click Here to Read about Clinical Parasitology

Rapid Identification of Rumen Protozoa by Restriction Analysis of Amplified 18S rRNA Gene

A rapid method has been developed for molecular identification of rumen ciliates without the need for cultivation. Total DNA was isolated from single protozoal cells by the Chelex method and nearly complete protozoal 18S rRNA genes were amplified and subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. On the basis of...Read More

Click Here to Read about Intestinal Protozoa in Rodents

Grazing Protozoa and the Evolution of the Escherichia Coli O157:H7 Shiga Toxin-Encoding Prophage

Humans play little role in the epidemiology of Escherichia coli O157:H7, a commensal bacterium of cattle. Why then does E. coli O157:H7 code for virulence determinants, like the Shiga toxins (Stxs), responsible for the morbidity and mortality of colonized humans? One possibility is that the virulence of these bacteria to humans is...Read More

Click Here to Read about Working with Protozoa; Tips and Techniques

Establishment of Rumen Ciliate Protozoa in Cow and Water Buffalo (Bos bubalus L.) Calves under Late and Early Weaning Systems

Establishment of ciliate protozoa in the tureens of cow and buffalo calves kept under early and late weaning systems was studied. The results showed that the rumens of the buffalo calves harbored active populations of ciliate protozoa at earlier ages than those of...Read More

Rumen Protozoa

Rumen ciliates are extremely sensitive to thermal shock. Samples of rumen should be collected and transported in insulated bottles, which have been warmed with hot water. If possible, the bottles should be...Read More

Separation of Small Ciliate Protozoa from Bacteria by Sucrose Gradient Centrifugation

Small ciliate protozoa are predominant in marshes and estuaries, where high levels of nutrients and bacteria occur. The trophodynamics of such bactivorous ciliates have been studied by only a few workers. The feeding of...Read More

Click Here to Read about A Comparative Study of Protozoa

Click Here to Read about Protozoa and Enteric Virus Sample Collection Procedures

Blood and Tissue Protozoa

Several pathogenic protozoa are found in the blood and tissues of humans (Table 1). In general these are transmitted by blood-feeding arthropod vectors. The exception is Toxoplasma gondii which is acquired by...Read More

Symbiotic Flagellated Protozoa Isolated from Red Palm Weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

Cultures of flagellated protozoa FP-007 isolated from the hindgut of the red palm weevil, 3 Rhynchophorus ferrugineus. Results showed that the isolated protozoa required NaHCO and fetal bovine serum for good growth; the presence of yeast extract is stimulatory. Under these conditions, 2 H was ...Read More

Click Here to Read about Protozoa Population Lab - Controlling Bacterial Pests

Morphology and Infraciliature of the Oligotrich Ciliate Strombidium Rapulum from the Intestine of Sea Urchin Hemicentrotus Pulcherrimus Agassiz

The morphology and infraciliature of a poorly known endocommensal ciliate, Strombidium rapulum (Yagiu, 1933) Kahl, 1934, isolated from the intestine of the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus Agassiz, was investigated based on observations of specimens from living cells and fixed protargol impregnated cells. An improved diagnosis is given based on previous and...Read More

Protozoa

Traditionally the animal kingdom has been divided into two subkingdoms; Protozoa and Metazoa. Protozoa are the most abundant animals in the world in terms of numbers and biomass. Their principal importance is...Read More

Investigating the Diversity of Parasitic Protozoa using Gregarine Parasites of Invertebrates

Gregarines are protozoan parasites in the phylum Apicomplexa. All members of this phylum (previously called Sporozoa) are parasites. The name Apicomplexa is derived from an ultrastructural feature called the...Read More

Quantitative Micro Determination and Isolation of Plasmalogen Aldehydes as 2,4-Dinitrophenylhydramnes

A micro spectrophotometric procedure for the quantitative determination of plasmalogen aldehydes is described which utilizes simultaneous methanolysis and formation of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones. After isolation of the hydrazones by...Read More

Click Here to Read about List of Species in Protozoa

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4. Protozoa - Diseases

Click Here to Read about Protozoan Diseases

The Biochemistry of Rumen Protozoa

Polyplastron multivesiculatum (Dogiel & Fedorowa) is one of the larger Ophryoscolecid ciliates which occurs frequently in rumen protozoal populations, particularly in sheep (Eadie, 1962b). This organism has five skeletal plates, but the smallest of these is difficult to distinguish except in very empty organisms. Because of this, as explained by Eadie (1962b), there has...Read More

Cestodes (Tapeworms)

Taeniasis has a worldwide distribution, higher in developing countries: as low as 1/1000 in most of North America and as high as 10% in the 3rd world. Pork tapeworm is related to...Read More

Protozoa as Pharmacological Tools: The Antihistamines

Tetrahymena pyriformis, a ciliated protozoon which may be grown in defined media and which has an exogenous requirement for histidine, was used for growth and motility studies. The maintenance, inoculation and experimental media were...Read More

Click Here to Study A Guide to the Protozoa of Marine Aquaculture Ponds

Infections with Motile Protozoa in Game Birds in Scotland 1998 - 2004

The game bird industry is an important part of Scotlands rural economy. Red grouse are managed extensively on heather moors, and many millions of pheasants and red-legged partridges are reared semi-intensively and...Read More

Free-Living Protozoa in Unchlorinated Drinking Water

Free-living protozoa are ubiquitous in natural freshwater environments and also proliferate in engineered water systems. However, the diversity and identity of free-living protozoan communities in drinking water and in biofilms of drinking water distribution systems is...Read More

Protozoa in Cooling Towers: Implications for Public Health & Chemical Control

Cooling towers provide ideal environments for the proliferation of micro-organisms including Legionellae. Despite increasing technical and regulatory controls on their operation and maintenance, cooling towers are commonly reported sources of Legionellosis outbreaks within Australia. The on-going potential for cooling towers to contribute to...Read More

Chilodonella Uncinata - A Protozoa Pathogenic to Mosquito Larvae

Natural population of mosquitoes is kept under check by the activities of parasites and predators. Several species of viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and nematodes are known to cause infection in mosquito larvae. Endoparasitic ciliated protozoa have been...Read More

Ion Transport in Parasitic Protozoa

Many parasitic protozoa go through complex life cycles in the course of which they adapt to widely different environments; ion transport processes are expected to play a role both in pathogenicity and in adaptation. So far, studies on ion transport have been virtually limited to Leishmania, Plasmodium and Entamoeba. The distribution of ion pumps in the...Read More

Intestinal Disorders Caused By Protozoa

Protozoa are monocellular organisms. These most primitive of organisms constitute the stage of transition from plants to animals. They measure more than 1 micrometer (1 μ = 1 micrometer = one thousandth part of a millimeter) in diameter. Their cell structure includes one or...Read More

A Study of Intestinal Protozoa Including Non-Pathogenic Entamoeba histolytica from Patients in a Group of Mental Hospitals

Recent work on isolates of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites, made in Mexico, and grown in monoxenic culture then characterized according to their isoenzyme pattern by thin-layer starch-gel electrophoresis, has demonstrated that there are...Read More

Protozoan Diseases

Blackhead is an acute or chronic protozoan disease of fowl, primarily affecting the cecae and liver. The disease is present wherever poultry are raised. Blackhead is one of the critical diseases of growing turkeys and game birds. It may cause...
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Drug Development to Protozoan Diseases

Protozoan diseases continue to take an enormous toll on human health, particularly in tropical regions, causing considerable mortality and morbidity. The main infections in human are due to protozoan of Plasmodium, Trypanosoma and Leishmania genus, although...Read More

Click Here to Read about Protozoan Diseases of Fresh Water Fishes in Hokkaido

Santo Ina Cio Revisited: Protozoan Diseases in an Isolated Village in Northeastern Brazil After Twenty Years

The northeastern highlands of Brazil are endemic for several tropical diseases, especially American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease) and...Read More

Protozoan Diseases of Livestock, Wild Animals and Man in Himachal Pradesh - An Overview

Click here to read about the protozoan diseases prevalent in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh

Harnessing Genomics to Tackle Protozoal Diseases

Many of the group of organisms collectively termed protozoa are, or can be, human parasites, and these are responsible for some of the most devastating diseases known to humankind. Oddly, there is no formal classification of a protozoan in any recognized taxonomy. They are single-celled eukaryotes, and...Read More

Protozoan and Fungal Diseases in Solenopsis Richteri and S. Quinquecuspis (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina

The diversity and abundance of protozoa and fungi infecting colonies of the fire ants Solenopsis richteri Forel and S. quinquecuspis Forel were surveyed in Buenos Aires province, Argentina. A total of...Read More

Amebae and Ciliated Protozoa as Causal Agents of Waterborne Zoonotic Disease

The roles free-living amebae and the parasitic protozoa Entamoeba histolytica and Balantidium coli play as agents of waterborne zoonotic diseases are examined. The free-living soil and water amebae Naegleria fowleri, Acanthamoeba spp., and Balamuthia mandrillaris are recognized etiologic agents of...Read More

Intestinal Protozoa in Wild Boars (Sus scrofa) in Western Iran

A total of 12 gastrointestinal tracts of wild boars (Sus scrofa) from western Iran (Luristan) were examined for protozoan infection between September 2000 and November 2001. Of 12 boars examined, 67% harbored one or more species of the...Read More

Click Here to Read about Free-Living Protozoa

Infectious Diseases of Poultry

Poultry that have an infection show a variety of symptoms, e.g. respiratory problems diarrhoea and paralysis. It should be emphasised initially that prevention of infection in a poultry flock by sound management practices is...Read More

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5. Protozoa - Questions

Answers to Common Questions on Protozoa

Protozoa FAQs

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6. Protozoa - News

Protozoa News

Leishmaniasis is a disfiguring tropical disease, in which a trypanosome protozoa agent infecting the human body essentially eats away the...Read More

Protozoa Pictures, News and Information

Protozoa News

A termite, entombed for 100 million years in amber, has helped researchers unravel the oldest example of insect-parasite cooperation or...Read More

Click Here to View Protozoa News Collection

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7. Protozoa - Journals

The American Journal of the Medical Sciences

Informaworld

Journal of Plankton Research

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