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Virus
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Virus - Quick links
1. Virus - Introduction
2. Virus - Diseases
3. Virus - Vaccines
4. Virus - Research
5. Virus - Questions
6. Virus - News
7. Virus - Articles
 
 
Brief Introduction to Virus
Viruses are microscopic organisms that cause serious/grave diseases 
in Humans and animals. Viruses have a complex structural make up.
Viruses are measured in microns. Viruses play a very important role
in human health. They range from common cold virus to terminal
disease causing AIDS virus. The popular topics in viruses are: • H1N1 Virus • Conficker C Virus • Feline Leukemia Virus • H1N1 Virus Symptoms • Ebola Virus • Epstein Barr Virus • Parvo Virus in Humans • Herpes Virus • West Nile Virus • Human Papilloma Virus • Stomach Virus • Stomach Virus Symptoms • MRSA Virus Contagious • Parvo Virus in Dogs • H1N1 Flu Virus Symptoms
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Virus - Quick links

HPV Virus :

A human papillomavirus (HPV) is a member of the papillomavirus family of viruses that is capable of infecting humans. Like all papillomaviruses, HPVs establish productive infections only in the stratified epithelium of the skin or mucous membranes. While the majority of the nearly 200 known types of HPV cause no symptoms in most people, some types can cause warts  (verrucae), while others can in a minority of cases lead to cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, and anus in women or cancers of the anus and penis in men. More than 30 to 40 types of HPV are typically transmitted through sexual contact and infect the anogenital region. Some sexually transmitted HPV types may cause genital warts. Persistent infection with "high-risk" HPV types different from the ones that cause warts may progress to precancerous lesions and invasive cancer. HPV infection...Read more

FLU Virus :

What Is the Flu?
Flu is the common name for influenza (pronounced: in-floo-en-za), a virus that attacks the respiratory system. Usually when you're sick with a virus, your body builds up a defense system by making antibodies against it, so you don't get that particular virus strain again. Unfortunately, flu viruses mutate (change) each year, so you aren't protected from getting the flu forever. Some years the change in the flu virus is slight. So even if you get the flu, it's a mild case because the antibodies from having the flu before give you partial protection. But every 10 years or so the flu virus undergoes a major change and many people get severe cases. These large-scale outbreaks are called epidemics. If they spread worldwide, they're called pandemics...Read more

Herpes Virus :

Herpes Virus: On this page we will delve into the topic of two types of herpes: herpes simplex 1 and herpes simplex 2 and various aspects of living with and learning about both. For anyone living with genital herpes the most common attempt at disclosure will be to compare the infection to that of oral herpes or €œcold sores.€ There always seems to be an underlying need to somehow €œlesson€ the severe perceptions that one may have by drawing attention to the herpes virus that is socially acceptable. Contrary to scientific fact, many believe there will always be a €œgood€ herpes virus (oral herpes) and a €œbad€ herpes virus (genital herpes). Based on the various up to date information resources and the assistance of Dr. H of Herpes.org, we will explore the two types of herpes based on varying criteria. According to The American Social Health Association, under a microscope herpes simplex 1 and herpes simplex 2 are virtually identical, sharing approximately 50% of their DNA. Both herpes type 1 and herpes type 2 infect the mucosal surfaces of the body most often the mouth or the genitals and then establish latency in the nervous system. For both herpes...Read more

HIV Virus :

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus  (a member of the retrovirus family) that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a condition in humans in which the immune system begins to fail, leading to life-threatening opportunistic infections. Infection with HIV occurs by the transfer of blood, semen, vaginal fluid, pre-ejaculate, or breast milk. Within these bodily fluids, HIV is present as both free virus particles and virus within infected immune cells. The four major routes of transmission are unsafe sex, contaminated needles, breast milk, and transmission from an infected mother to her baby at birth (vertical transmission). Screening of blood products for HIV has largely eliminated transmission through blood transfusions or infected blood products in the developed world.
HIV infection in humans is considered pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). Nevertheless, complacency about HIV may play a key role in HIV risk...Read more

Virus Symptoms :

Virus symptoms: Symptoms of Epstein-Barr Virus
The infection develops slowly with such mild symptoms that it may initially be indistinguishable from a cold or the flu. As the condition progresses the symptoms may include:
A sore throat that lasts two weeks or more
Swollen lymph nodes in the neck, armpits, and groin
A persistent fever (usually about 102 degrees F)
Fatigue
Malaise (a vague feeling of discomfort)
These symptoms can be mild or so severe that throat pain impedes swallowing and fever reaches 105 degrees F. Some people also experience a rash, eye pain, photophobia (discomfort with bright light), a swollen spleen or liver infection. Although the symptoms of infectious mononucleosis usually resolve in one or two months, the EBV remains dormant in cells in the throat and blood for the rest of the person's life. Periodically, the virus can reactivate and can be found in the saliva of infected persons. This reactivation usually occurs without symptoms of illness. EBV also establishes a lifelong dormant infection in some cells of the body's immune system.
Diagnosis of Epstein-Barr Virus
Diagnosis is suggested on the basis of the clinical symptoms of fever, sore throat, swollen...Read more

West Nile Virus :

If mosquitoes are still flying there is still a danger from West Nile virus. Infected mosquitoes spread West Nile virus that can cause serious, life-altering, and even fatal disease. Keep using insect repellent, wear long sleeves and long pants and dump out standing water in the yard where mosquitoes can lay their eggs...Read more

Epstein Virus :

Epstein-Barr Virus and Infectious Mononucleosis : Epstein-Barr virus, frequently referred to as Epstein Virus, is a member of the herpesvirus family and one of the most common human viruses. The virus occurs worldwide, and most people become infected with EBV sometime during their lives. In the United States, as many as 95% of adults between 35 and 40 years of age have been infected. Infants become susceptible to EPSTEIN VIRUS as soon as maternal antibody protection (present at birth) disappears. Many children become infected with Epstein Virus, and these infections usually cause no symptoms or are indistinguishable from the other mild, brief illnesses of childhood. In the United States and in other developed countries, many persons are not infected with Epstein Virus in their childhood years. When infection with Epstein Virus occurs during adolescence or young adulthood, it causes infectious mononucleosis 35% to 50% of the time. Symptoms of infectious mononucleosis are fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph glands. Sometimes, a swollen spleen or liver involvement may develop. Heart problems or involvement of the central nervous system occurs only rarely, and infectious mononucleosis is almost never fatal. There are no known associations between active Epstein Virus infection and problems during pregnancy, such as miscarriages or birth defects. Although the symptoms of infectious mononucleosis usually resolve in 1 or 2 months, Epstein Virus remains...Read more

HPV Virus in Women :

There are over 30 types of HPV that affect the genitals specifically in both men and women.  The HPV Types 16 and 18 has been known to cause up to 70% of cervical cancer in the U.S.  The HPV Types 6 and 11 causes 90% of genital warts and in some cases a rare cancer of the mouth and throat.  The HPV virus alone has no signs or symptoms. the only way to detect it is through specific testing of the uterine cells collected during a Pap Smear.  Most doctors do not recommend the HPV test for women under 30 with a normal Pap result.  But with the virus on the rise, you should speak to your gynecologist to see if you should have the test.  You must be open and honest about your sexual history so that your doctor can make informed decisions.  Most women don't know they have HPV until it develops into something more serious.  Scientists agree that women who have been exposed to the virus through sexual contact, are smokers, and have had more than 6 unprotected sexual encounters are at the highest risk of developing cervical cancer at some time in...Read more

MRSA Virus :

If you have realized that a staph infection has enveloped in your skin, it is time to look for a MRSA treatment that is safe and will help you to recover as fast as possible. The best MRSA treatments will be able to be administered by your doctor. You will want to make sure that you follow all the procedures needed to eradicate any small parts left of an infection since they can come back even worse. There are several ways to treat MRSA if you do get a staph infection. Most of the time MRSA Virus treatments consist of flushes of medications to ensure that the MRSA virus will leave your system and be...Read more

Nile Virus Symptoms :

Symptoms of West Nile Virus:
Q. What are the symptoms of West Nile virus (WNV) infection?
A. Infection with WNV can be asymptomtic (no symptoms), or can lead to West Nile fever or severe West Nile disease. It is estimated that about 20% of people who become infected with WNV will develop West Nile fever. Symptoms include fever, headache, tiredness, and body aches, occasionally with a skin rash (on the trunk of the body) and swollen lymph glands. While the illness can be as short as a few days, even healthy people have reported being sick for several weeks. The symptoms of severe disease (also called neuroinvasive disease, such as West Nile encephalitis or meningitis or West Nile poliomyelitis) include headache, high fever, neck stiffness, stupor, disorientation, coma, tremors, convulsions, muscle weakness, and paralysis. It is estimated that approximately 1 in 150 persons infected with the West Nile virus...Read more

H5N1 Virus :

nfluenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as "bird flu", A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species.  A bird-adapted strain of H5N1, called HPAI A(H5N1) for "highly pathogenic  avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1", is the causative agent of H5N1 flu, commonly known as "avian influenza" or "bird flu". It is enzootic in many bird populations, especially in Southeast Asia. One strain of HPAI A(H5N1) is spreading globally after first appearing in Asia. It is epizootic  (an epidemic in nonhumans) and panzootic (affecting animals of many species, especially over a wide area), killing tens of millions of birds and spurring the culling of hundreds of millions of others to stem its spread. Most references to "bird flu" and H5N1 in the popular media refer to this strain. According to the FAO Avian Influenza Disease Emergency Situation Update, H5N1 pathogenicity is continuing to gradually rise in endemic areas but the avian influenza disease situation in farmed birds is being held in check by vaccination. Eleven outbreaks of H5N1 were reported worldwide in June 2008 in five countries (China, Egypt, Indonesia, Pakistan and Vietnam) compared to...Read more

Virus Cure :

Herpes virus: Disease is possible cure: Most people know herpes as the virus responsible for causing cold sores. At best, it causes occasional cold-sore flare-ups; at worst, in the form of herpes simplex II, it can travel to the brain or be transmitted to newborns and be fatal. One thing is certain: once a person contracts the virus, it is a lifelong companion. There is no cure. But now researchers are examining the flip side of herpes: its potential to cure other diseases. Scientists are beginning to investigate its uses as a vector for gene therapy in the treatment of certain cancers. The virus and its potential uses are the topic of this year's Ryerson Lecture, to be presented by Bernard Roizman at 5:30 p.m., Thursday, April 16, in Max Palevsky Cinema, Ida Noyes Hall. Roizman, the world's leading authority on herpes, is the Joseph Regenstein Distinguished Service Professor in Molecular Genetics & Cell Biology and Chairman of the Committees on Genetics and Virology. The lecture is free and open to the public. Roizman has been studying the herpes virus since the 1950s and is responsible for much of what we know about the virus today. His current work -- on ways the virus could be...Read more

Shingles Virus :

What is shingles? What causes shingles?
Shingles is a skin rash caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox. This virus is called the Varicella zoster virus (VZV) and is in the herpes family of viruses. After an individual has chickenpox, this virus lives dormant in the nervous system and is never fully cleared from the body. Under certain circumstances, such as emotional stress, immune deficiency (from AIDS or chemotherapy), or with cancer, the virus reactivates and causes shingles. In most cases of shingles, however, a cause for the reactivation of the virus is never found. Anyone who has ever had chickenpox is at risk for the development of shingles, although it occurs most commonly in people over the age of 60. It has been estimated that up to...Read more

Flu Virus Symptoms :

Influenza, commonly known as "the flu," is a highly contagious viral infection of the respiratory tract. Although the flu affects both sexes and all age groups, kids tend to get it more often than adults. The illness even has its own season from November to April, with most cases occurring between late December and early March.
Signs and Symptoms
The flu is often confused with the common cold, but flu symptoms are usually more severe than the typical sneezing and stuffiness of a cold...Read more

Mouth Virus :

Mouth Sores, Coxsackie Virus (Hand, Foot, And Mouth Disease): Your child has a high fever, is very fussy, is drooling everywhere, and is refusing to eat or even drink her favorite juice. These are common symptoms of sore throat, teething, as well as ear infections, but one often overlooked cause of this group of symptoms is mouth sores. Here are some tips to help you through this very bothersome and painful, yet not serious, illness...Read more

HIV AIDS Virus :

Acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease of the human immune system caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This condition progressively reduces the effectiveness of the immune system and leaves individuals susceptible to opportunistic infections and tumors. HIV is transmitted through direct contact of a mucous membrane or the bloodstream with a bodily fluid containing HIV, such as blood, semen, vaginal fluid, preseminal fluid, and breast milk. This transmission can involve anal, vaginal or oral sex, blood transfusion, contaminated hypodermic needles, exchange between mother and baby during pregnancy, childbirth, breastfeeding or other exposure to one of the above bodily fluids...Read more

Stomach Virus Symptoms :

Stomach virus or Gastroenteritis is otherwise known as stomach flu.  Diarrhea is the major symptom of stomach upset.    The other stomach flu symptoms such as vomiting and feeling comfortable when stuck in toilet for long hours make a person get upset.  Everything happens due to viral infection.
Causes of Diarrhea
Rotovirus plays a leading role in diarrhea.  The children under the age of 5 are getting affected by this virus and suffer for 5-7 days. This is usually accompanied by fever and pain in the stomach.  Adults can escape within 1-2 days from this type of virus. Calicivirus is also a culprit in the stomach and affects all age group of people.  The virus causes vomiting, body ache and tiredness along with diarrhea.
Children under the age of two suffer from stomach flu due to Adenovirus.  Diarrhea and vomiting accompanied with body pain are the symptoms of this disease. Astrovirus affects all age group especially those with reduced body immunity.  It breeds well in winter and the symptoms are visible only after three days...Read more

Throat Virus :

Are you wondering if your sore throat  requires antibiotics? Strep throat, named for the Streptococcus bacterium that causes the condition, is a particularly severe form of sore throat that is best treated with antibiotics. Strep throat can strike both children and adults, but only about five to ten percent of sore throats are caused by a bacterial infection. Most sore throats are caused by viral illnesses and are not responsive to treatment with antibiotics. A true streptococcal infection of the throat often leads to excruciating throat pain accompanied by difficulty swallowing and even speaking. Fever may be present, and the tonsils are often covered with a whitish layer of pus. Cough and runny nose are not commonly related to strep throat, but it is possible to have a streptococcal infection along with a viral...Read more

EBV Virus :

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also called human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is a possible, but not scientifically proven, cancer causing virus of the herpes family, which includes herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, and is one of the most common viruses in humans. Epstein-Barr virus occurs worldwide. It is known to cause infectious mononucleosis, is implicated in the causation of Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma[1], and is suspected to have a role in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome, dermatomyositis, and multiple sclerosis. Most people become infected with EBV and gain adaptive immunity.[3] In the United States, as many as 95% of adults between 35 and 40 years of age have been infected. Infants become susceptible to EBV as soon as maternal antibody protection disappears. Many children become infected with EBV, and these infections usually cause no symptoms or...Read more

Herpes Virus 2 :

The Truth about HSV-1 and HSV-2
How alike are HSV-1 and HSV-2? In this feature, we look at the latest scientific facts about the two types of herpes simplex virus, as well as social attitudes toward oral and genital herpes. When many people first tell someone they have genital herpes, they start by comparing the infection to oral herpes, or cold sores. How apt is the comparison? In spite of scientific facts, the social stigma and emotional attitudes surrounding genital herpes can make it hard to compare it objectively with an oral infection that most people casually accept. Following the unspoken assumptions of our society, many people still believe there is a "good" herpes virus-HSV- 1, the usual cause of cold sores-and a "bad" herpes virus-HSV-2, the usual cause of genital herpes. In this feature, we take a look at HSV- 1 and 2 to see how alike and different the two viral types really are. We asked leading researchers how the two compare in terms of severity, recurrences, and transmission rates. We asked how...Read more

Bird Virus :

Avian influenza cannot be diagnosed by symptoms alone, so a laboratory test is required. Avian influenza is usually diagnosed by collecting a swab from the nose or throat during the first few days of illness. This swab is then sent to a laboratory, where they will either look for avian influenza virus using a molecular test, or they will try to grow the virus. Growing avian influenza viruses should only be done in laboratories with high levels of protection. If it is late in the illness, it may be difficult to find an avian influenza virus directly using these methods. If this is the case, it may still be possible to diagnose avian influenza by looking for evidence of the body's response to the virus. This is not always an option because it requires two blood specimens (one taken during the first few days of illness and another taken some...Read more

Canine Virus :

The canine flu virus, also referred to as Canine Influenza Virus, Greyhound Disease, and Race Flu, is considered highly contagious respiratory infection of dogs. It was originally identified in 2005 and last years news of it flooded the internet and news. There are possible cases being documented by veterinarians in almost every state but there is not a good communication system between states to determine the full extent of the virus. The virus can cause coughing, high fevers, nasal discharge and a fatal pneumonia..It has been suggested that 80% of dogs exposed to the virus will develop an infection. Most dogs will only have mild coughing however puppies and older dogs are at greatest risk for fatalities associated with the virus. The number of dogs at risk from dying from this virus may be anywhere from 1 to 10%...Read more

Bird Flu Virus :

Avian influenza in birds: Avian influenza is an infection caused by avian (bird) influenza (flu) viruses. These influenza viruses occur naturally among birds. Wild birds worldwide carry the viruses in their intestines, but usually do not get sick from them. However, avian influenza is very contagious among birds and can make some domesticated birds, including chickens, ducks, and turkeys, very sick and kill them. Infected birds shed influenza virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces. Susceptible birds become infected when they have contact with contaminated secretions or excretions or with surfaces that are contaminated with secretions or excretions from infected birds. Domesticated birds may become infected with avian influenza virus through direct contact with infected waterfowl or other infected poultry, or through contact with surfaces (such as dirt or cages) or materials (such as water or feed) that have been contaminated with the virus. Infection with avian influenza viruses in domestic poultry causes two main forms of disease that are distinguished by low and high extremes of virulence. The €œlow pathogenic€ form may go undetected and usually causes only mild symptoms (such as ruffled feathers and a drop in egg production). However, the highly pathogenic form spreads more...Read more

Herpes Simplex Virus 2 :

Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as Human herpes virus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and -2), are two members of the herpes virus family, Herpesviridae, that infect humans.  Both HSV-1 and -2 are ubiquitous and contagious. They can be spread when an infected person is producing and shedding the virus. Symptoms of herpes simplex virus infection include watery blisters in the skin or mucous membranes of the mouth, lips or genitals.  Lesions heal with a scab characteristic of herpetic disease. However, as neurotropic and neuroinvasive viruses, HSV-1 and -2 persist in the body for the life of the carrier by becoming latent and hiding from the immune system in the cell bodies of nerves. After the initial or primary infection, some infected people experience sporadic episodes of viral reactivation or outbreaks. In an outbreak, the virus in a nerve cell becomes active and is transported via the nerve's axon to the skin,..Read more

Diarrhea Virus :

Diarrhea: Learn how the new prebiotic soluble fibers benefit bowel health and many GI disorders. Everyone has diarrhea at one time or another and everyone has their own idea of exactly what diarrhea is. Is it one liquid stool each day? Is it several soft, semiformed stools each day? Or is it frequent, watery stools throughout the day and even the night? Stool is made up mostly of water. For people in the Western World, the usual amount of water in stool each day is generally no more than 200 ml or 7 oz. (8 oz. = 1 cup). When it is consistently more than this, it is called diarrhea in the...Read more

Epstein Barr Virus Symptoms :

Epstein-Barr virus causes a number of diseases, including infectious mononucleosis.
The infection is spread through kissing or other close contact with an infected person.
Symptoms vary, but the most common are extreme fatigue, fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph nodes.
A blood test is done to confirm the diagnosis.
Acetaminophen Some Trade Names
TYLENOL or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs can relieve fever and pain.
Infection with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is very common. In the United States, about 50% of all children 5 years of age and nearly 95% of adults have had an EBV infection. Most of these infections produce symptoms similar to those of a cold or other mild . Sometimes, teenagers and young adults develop different and more severe symptoms from EBV infection. This disease is called infectious mononucleosis. Infectious mononucleosis is named for the large numbers of white blood cells (mononuclear cells) in...Read more

Herpes Virus :

Herpesviruses all share a common structureall herpesviruses are composed of relatively large double-stranded, linear DNA genomes encoding 100-200 genes encased within an icosahedral  protein cage called the capsid which is itself wrapped in a protein layer called the tegument containing both viral proteins and viral mRNAs and a lipid bilayer membrane called the envelope. This whole particle is known as the virion.
Herpes virus life-cycle
All Herpesviruses are nuclear-replicatingthe viral DNA is transcribed to RNA within the infected cell's nucleus. Infection is initiated when a viral particle contacts a cell with specific types of receptor molecules on the cell surface. Following binding of viral envelope glycoproteins to cell membrane receptors, the virion is internalized and dismantled, allowing viral DNA to migrate to the cell nucleus. Within the nucleus, replication of viral DNA and transcription of viral genes occurs...Read more

Wart Virus :

Basically, a skin wart is a benign tumour or growth of the skin that is caused by a wart virus. The wart virus accelerates the growth of keratin in the topmost skin layer leading to the growth of a rough and hard bump. The specific virus responsible for warts is the Human Papilloma Virus or HPV of which there are several different strains. Different strains cause different types of warts and other strains of this virus can also cause other problems such as cervical cancer or skin cancer. Just because you have skin warts does not mean that you have or will have these other health conditions...Read more

Herpes Zoster Virus :

Herpes zoster (or simply zoster), commonly known as shingles  and also known as zona, is a viral disease characterized by a painful skin rash with blisters  in a limited area on one side of the body, often in a stripe. The initial infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes the acute (short-lived) illness chickenpox  which generally occurs in children and young people. Once an episode of chickenpox has resolved, the virus is not eliminated from the body but can go on to cause shinglesan illness with very different symptomsoften many years after the initial infection. Varicella zoster virus can become latent in the nerve cell bodies and less frequently in non-neuronal satellite cells of dorsal root, cranial nerve or autonomic ganglion,[1] without causing any symptoms.[2] Years or decades after a chickenpox infection, the virus may break out of nerve cell bodies and travel down nerve axons to cause viral infection of ...Read more

HPV Virus in Men :

HPV Infection in Men
Much of the information about HPV virus (human papillomavirus) centers on women, since having the virus increases their risk of getting cervical cancer. But HPV virus in men can cause health problems, too. It's important for men to understand how to reduce the risks of HPV infection. HPV infection can increase a man's risk of getting genital cancers, although these cancers are not common. HPV can also cause genital warts in men, just as in women. More than half of men who are sexually active in the United States will have HPV at some time in their life. Often, a man will clear the virus on his own, with no...Read more

HPV Virus :

Genital human papillomavirus (also called HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted infection (STI). There are more than 40 HPV types that can infect the genital areas of males and females. These HPV types can also infect the mouth and throat. Most people who become infected with HPV do not even know they have it. HPV is not the same as herpes or HIV (the virus that causes AIDS). These are all viruses that can be passed on during sex, but they cause different symptoms and health problems...Read more

Chikungunya Virus :

Chikungunya (in the Makonde language "that leans downward") virus (CHIKV) is an insect-borne virus, of the genus Alphavirus, that is transmitted to humans by virus-carrying Aedes mosquitoes.[1]  There have been recent breakouts of CHIKV associated with severe illness. CHIKV causes an illness with symptoms similar to dengue fever. CHIKV manifests itself with an acute febrile phase of the illness lasting only two to five days, followed by a prolonged arthralgic  disease that affects the joints of the extremities. The pain associated with CHIKV infection of the joints persists for weeks or months, or in some cases years...Read more

HTLV Virus :

The Human T-lymphotropic virus Type I (HTLV-1) is a human RNA retrovirus  that causes T-cell leukemia  and T-cell lymphoma in adults and may also be involved in certain demyelinating diseases, including tropical spastic paraparesis. The HTLV-1 genome is diploid, composed of two copies of a single-stranded RNA virus whose genome is copied into a double-stranded DNA form that integrates into the host cell genome, at which point the virus is referred to as a provirus. Adult T-lymphotropic virus (ATLV) is a strain of this disease that affects primarily adults. A closely related virus is...Read more

Human Parvo Virus :

What is "fifth disease?"
Fifth disease is a mild rash illness that occurs most commonly in children. The ill child typically has a "slapped-cheek" rash on the face and a lacy red rash on the trunk and limbs. Occasionally, the rash may itch. An ill child may have a low-grade fever, malaise, or a "cold" a few days before the rash breaks out. The child is usually not very ill, and the rash resolves in 7 to 10 days.
What causes fifth disease?
Fifth disease is caused by infection with human parvovirus B19. This virus infects only humans. Pet dogs or cats may be immunized against "parvovirus," but these are animal parvoviruses that do not infect humans. Therefore, a child cannot "catch" parvovirus from a pet dog or cat, and a pet cat or dog cannot catch human parvovirus B19 from an ill child...Read more

Mononucleosis Virus :

What is infectious mononucleosis ("mono")?
Infectious mononucleosis, "mono," "kissing disease," and glandular fever are all terms popularly used for the very common illness caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). EBV is a member of the herpesvirus family. Symptoms of infection with EBV include fever, malaise, and sore throat. The designation "mononucleosis" refers to an increase in one type of white blood cells (lymphocytes) in the bloodstream relative to the other blood components as a result of the EBV infection...Read more

Chronic Epstein Barr Virus :

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a member of the herpes group and cause of infectious mononucleosis. It primarily affects young adults and children, although in children it is usually so mild that it is often overlooked. Infectious mononucleosis is fairly common and both sexes are affected equally; prognosis is excellent, and major complications are uncommon. Please note that it is extremely important to obtain an accurate diagnosis before trying to find a cure.  Many diseases and conditions share common symptoms: if you treat yourself for the wrong illness or a specific symptom of a complex disease, you may delay legitimate treatment of a serious underlying problem.  In other words, the greatest danger in self-treatment may be self-diagnosis. If you do not know what you really have, you can not treat it!..Read more

Malaria Virus :

Malaria Virus: There is no "malaria virus" that causes the disease. Malaria is caused by infection with a parasite from the genus Plasmodium. Out of over 100 types of Plasmodium parasites, only the following 4 infect humans: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium vivax, and Plasmodium malariae. There is no malaria virus that causes malaria. Instead of a malaria virus, the cause of malaria is an infection with a parasite. A parasite is a microscopic organism that lives within another organism (known as a host), but provides no benefit to the host. The specific parasites that cause malaria come from the genus Plasmodium, and the parasite hosts include both animals (such as reptiles, birds, and various mammals), and a specific species of mosquitoes known as Anopheles. While there are over 100 types of Plasmodium parasites, only 4 infect...Read more

Strep Virus :

Strep throat is sometimes mistakenly believed to be a virus, but it actually is a bacterial infection of the throat. As a bacterial infection, strep can be treated with antibiotics, which are ineffective against viruses. Infection with strep throat can lead to several symptoms; it is important to see a doctor if you exhibit symptoms of strep throat to receive medication and avoid complications.
Sore Throat
1. One of the primary symptoms of strep throat is a persistent sore throat and discomfort associated with the throat. Normal colds sometimes cause sore     throats, but they usually are not severe and fade in a few days. Strep may cause sore throats that do not fade quickly, and discomfort can persist     during the day, making swallowing difficult and leaving a scratchy feeling in...Read more

Chickenpox Virus :

Chickenpox or chicken pox is a highly contagious illness caused by primary infection  with varicella zoster virus (VZV).  It usually starts with vesicular skin rash mainly on the body and head rather than at the periphery and become itchy raw pockmarks which mostly heal without scarring. Chicken pox is spread easily through coughs or sneezes of ill individuals, or through direct contact with secretions from the rash. Following primary infection there is usually lifelong protective immunity from further episodes of chickenpox. Chickenpox is rarely fatal, although it is generally more severe in adult males than in adult females or children. Pregnant women and those with a suppressed immune system are at highest risk of serious complications. Chicken pox is now believed to be the cause of one third of stroke cases in children. The most common late complication of chicken pox is shingles, caused by reactivation of the varicella zoster virus decades after the initial episode of...Read more

H1N1 virus :

Influenza A (H1N1) virus is a subtype of influenza A virus and the most common cause of influenza  (flu) in humans. Some strains of H1N1 are endemic in humans and cause a small fraction of all influenza-like illness and a small fraction of all seasonal influenza. H1N1 strains caused a few percent of all human flu infections in 20042005.[1]  Other strains of H1N1 are endemic in pigs (swine influenza) and in birds (avian influenza)... Read more

The most active areas of pandemic influenza virus transmission currently are in parts of the tropical zones of the Americas, West Africa, Eastern Africa and South East Asia. Although pandemic influenza continues to be the predominant circulating influenza virus worldwide, seasonal influenza type B virus circulation continues to be predominant in East Asia, and is being detected across other parts of Asia, and Europe at low levels. Sporadic detections of seasonal influenza H3N2 viruses have been reported across Asia, Eastern Europe and Eastern Africa most notably in recent weeks in Indonesia and Tanzania. Few seasonal H1N1 viruses were reported in the Russian Federation and Northern China in the last week... Read more

2009 H1N1 (sometimes called €œswine flu€) is a new influenza virus causing illness in people. This new virus was first detected in people in the United States in April 2009. This virus is spreading from person-to-person worldwide, probably in much the same way that regular seasonal influenza viruses spread. On June 11, 2009, the World Health OrganizationExternal Web Site Icon (WHO) declared that a pandemic of 2009 H1N1 flu was
underway...Read more

Feline Leukemia Virus :

Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a retrovirus  that infects cats. As a retrovirus, FeLV is transmitted as an RNA virus but the RNA is reverse transcribed into DNA. Retroviruses contradict the Central dogma of molecular biology. FeLV is usually transmitted between infected cats when the transfer of saliva or nasal secretions is involved. If not defeated by the animal€™s immune system, the virus can be lethal. The disease caused by this virus is a form of cancer of blood cells called lymphocytes (a leukemia)...Read more

Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), a retrovirus, so named because of the way it behaves within infected cells. All retroviruses, including feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), produce an enzyme, reverse transcriptase, which permits them to insert copies of their own genetic material into that of the cells they have infected. Although related, FeLV and FIV differ in many ways, including their shape: FeLV is more circular while FIV is elongated. The two viruses are also quite different genetically, and their protein consituents are dissimlar in size and composition. Although many of the diseases caused by FeLV and FIV are similar, the specific ways in which they are caused differs... Read more

The Feline Leukemia virus was one of the most common fatal diseases in cats until recently. Now with the aid of vaccination this disease can be prevented. Although the cases have dropped in recent years, it still remains a major cause of death in cats. Common signs of FeLV include anemia, jaundice, depression, weight loss, decreased appetite, diarrhea or constipation, blood in the stool, enlarged lymph nodes, respiratory distress, decreased stamina, excessive drinking and urination. FeLV also inhibits the ability to fight off infectious disease, so that any severe, chronic illness may lead your veterinarian to test for FeLV... Read more

H1N1 Virus Symptoms :

Symptoms and danger signs of Swine Flu

For Children:

Blue lips & skin.
Rapid breathing.
Excessive sleeping & seizures.
Persistent vomiting.

For Adults :

Shortness of breath.
Pain in chest or abdomen.
Sudden dizziness and
Persistent vomiting... Read more

According to the CDC, like seasonal flu, symptoms of swine flu infections can include:

   •    fever, which is usually high, but unlike seasonal flu, is sometimes absent
   •    cough
   •    runny nose or stuffy nose
   •    sore throat
   •    body aches
   •    headache
   •    chills
   •    fatigue or tiredness, which can be extreme
   •    diarrhea and vomiting, sometimes, but more commonly seen than with seasonal flu
Signs of a more serious swine flu infection might include pneumonia and respiratory failure... Read more

Symptoms of the swine flu are as under:

   •    Nasal Congestion
   •    Loss of appetite
   •    Body ache and pain
   •    Headache
   •    Fever more than 100 degree F
   •    Frequent and intense cough... Read more

Ebola Virus :

Ebola is the virus Ebolavirus (EBOV), a viral genus, and the disease Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), a viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF). The virus is named after the Ebola River Valley in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly Zaire), which is near the site of the first recognized outbreak, a mission hospital run by Flemish nuns, in 1976.[1]  There are five recognized species within the ebolavirus genus, which have a number of specific strains.[2]  The Zaire virus is the type species, which is also the first discovered and the most lethal. Electron micrographs show long filaments, characteristic of the Filoviridae  viral family. The virus interferes with the endothelial cells lining the interior surface of blood vessels and with coagulation. As the blood vessel walls become damaged and the platelets are unable to coagulate, patients succumb to hypovolemic shock... Read more

The Ebola virus belongs to the Filoviridae family (filovirus) and is comprised of five distinct species: Zaïre, Sudan, Côte d€™Ivoire, Bundibugyo and Reston. Zaïre, Sudan and Bundibugyo species have been associated with large Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) outbreaks in Africa with high case fatality ratio (2590%) while Côte d€™Ivoire and Reston have not. Reston species can infect humans but no serious illness or death in humans have been reported to date... Read more

Twenty years ago Ebola virus first emerged in simultaneous outbreaks in Sudan (ref 1) and Zaire.(ref 2) Two subsequent outbreaks have occurred, but transmission among human populations has not been sustained. Despite substantial progress in our understanding of Ebola we have not identified its natural reservoir or the trigger for its re-emergence in new outbreaks in humans. As the journal went to press, the World Health Organisation had reported 114 cases of Ebola infection and 79 deaths in a new outbreak centred in Kikwit, a rural town of 400000 situated in Bandundu Province, Zaire, 1000 km from the location of the 1976 outbreak in Zaire... Read more

Epstein Barr Virus :

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also called human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is a possible, but not scientifically proven, cancer causing virus of the herpes family, which includes herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, and is one of the most common viruses in humans. Epstein-Barr virus occurs worldwide. It is known to cause infectious mononucleosis, is implicated in the causation of Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma[1], and is suspected to have a role in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome and multiple sclerosis... Read more

Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a common human virus that causes infectious mononucleosis and plays a role in the emergence of two rare forms of cancer: Burkitt's lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.Some doctors and medical textbooks describe and diagnose EBV as infectious mononucleosis and vise-versa. To accommodate this association, this health profile will use EBV and mononucleosis ("mono") interchangeably... Read more

Epstein-Barr virus, frequently referred to as EBV, is a member of the herpesvirus family and one of the most common human viruses. The virus occurs worldwide, and most people become infected with EBV sometime during their lives. In the United States, as many as 95% of adults between 35 and 40 years of age have been infected. Infants become susceptible to EBV as soon as maternal antibody protection (present at birth) disappears. Many children become infected with EBV, and these infections usually cause no symptoms or are indistinguishable from the other mild, brief illnesses of childhood. In the United States and in other developed countries, many persons are not infected with EBV in their childhood years. When infection with EBV occurs during adolescence or young adulthood, it causes infectious mononucleosis 35% to 50% of the time... Read more

Parvo Virus in Humans :

The B19 virus, generally referred to as parvovirus B19 or sometimes erythrovirus B19, was the first (and until 2005 the only) known human virus in the family of parvoviruses, genus erythrovirus. B19 virus causes a childhood rash called fifth disease or erythema infectiosum which is commonly called slapped cheek syndrome. The virus was discovered by chance in 1975 by Australian virologist Yvonne Cossart. It gained its name because it was discovered in well B19 of a large series of petri dishes apparently numbered in this way... Read more

Fifth disease is caused by the human parvovirus B19, a viral infection. This virus commonly infects children, however adults without a previously developed immunity can come down with it also. Since fifth disease parvovirus can only infect humans, don€™t blame it on your pet dog or cat as the source of this infection... Read more

Fifth disease is caused by infection with human parvovirus B19. This virus infects only humans. Pet dogs or cats may be immunized against "parvovirus," but these are animal parvoviruses that do not infect humans. Therefore, a child cannot "catch" parvovirus from a pet dog or cat, and a pet cat or dog cannot catch human parvovirus B19 from an ill child... Read more

Herpes Virus :

Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as Human herpes virus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and -2), are two members of the herpes virus family, Herpesviridae, that infect humans.[1]  Both HSV-1 and -2 are ubiquitous and contagious. They can be spread when an infected person is producing and shedding the virus... Read more

There are two types of herpes simplex viruses (HSV). HSV type 2 is the one that most commonly causes genital herpes. You can get HSV type 2 during sexual contact with someone who has a genital HSV-2 infection. The infection causes painful sores on the genitals in both men and women. HSV type 1 is the herpes virus that is usually responsible for cold sores of the mouth, the so-called "fever blisters." You get HSV-1 by coming into contact with the saliva of an infected person... Read more

Either herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) can cause infection. HSV-1 is the most common cause of lesions that appear around the mouth and on the lips. HSV-2 is the typical cause of genital herpes. Both conditions are highly contagious and are spread by direct contact with the lesions of another infected individual such as a playmate, parent, or caretaker. The virus can even spread in the absence of symptoms or visible lesions... Read more

West Nile Virus :

West Nile virus (WNV) is a virus of the family Flaviviridae. Part of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) antigenic complex of viruses, it is found in both tropical  and temperate regions. It mainly infects birds, but is known to infect humans, horses, dogs, cats, bats, chipmunks, skunks, squirrels, and domestic rabbits. The main route of human infection  is through the bite of an infected mosquito... Read more

West Nile virus was first identified in 1937 in Uganda in eastern Africa. It was first discovered in the United States in the summer of 1999 in New York. Since then, the virus has spread throughout the United States. The West Nile virus is a type of virus known as a flavivirus. Researchers believe West Nile virus is spread when a mosquito bites an infected bird and then bites a person. Mosquitos carry the highest amounts of virus in the early fall, which is why the rate of the disease increases in late August to early September. The risk of disease decreases as the weather becomes colder and mosquitos die off... Read more

West Nile virus is caused by a bite from an infected mosquito that's already carrying the virus, but it's important to remember that not all mosquitoes are infected. In many parts of the United States, the risk of being bitten by an infected mosquito is greatest from July to early September. But in some parts of the country, mosquito bites can be a risk all year long... Read more

Human Papilloma Virus :

A human papillomavirus (HPV) is a member of the papillomavirus family of viruses that is capable of infecting humans. Like all papillomaviruses, HPVs establish productive infections only in the stratified epithelium of the skin or mucous membranes. While the majority of the nearly 200 known types of HPV cause no symptoms in most people, some types can cause warts  (verrucae), while others can in a minority of cases lead to cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, and anus in women or cancers of the anus and penis in men... Read more

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a group of more than 100 related viruses. They are called papillomaviruses because certain types may cause warts, or papillomas, which are benign (noncancerous) tumors. The HPVs that cause the common warts which grow on hands and feet are different from those that cause growths in the throat  or genital area. Some types of HPV are associated with certain types of cancer (1). These are called high-risk, oncogenic, or carcinogenic HPVs... Read more

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are common viruses that can cause warts. There are more than 100 types of HPV. Most are harmless, but about 30 types put you at risk for cancer. These types affect the genitals and you get them through sexual contact with an infected partner. They are classified as either low-risk or high-risk. Low-risk HPV can cause genital warts. High-risk HPV can lead to cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, and anus in women. In men, it can lead to cancers of the anus and penis... Read more

Bagle Virus :

The Bagle virus is a malicious software program that sets up a “backdoor” in your computer’s security features. Hackers can take advantage of the backdoor to take over your system and steal your information.
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The w32 bagle malware is part of a family of different viruses and Trojans. It continues to spread itself via email attachments and infects other computers.
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W32/Bagle is a very large family of worms that generally distribute themselves in infected e-mail file attachments. Once executed, the worm installs a backdoor on the infected machine, then propagates itself. Bagle has been programmed to stop spreading on 28th of January. Due to the large number of variants in the family, many later variants have significant differences from the earlier variants. The details below apply to the Bagle. A variant. Bagle was first discovered on 18th of January, 2004.
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Bird Flu Virus :

Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as “bird flu”, A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. A bird-adapted strain of H5N1, called HPAI A(H5N1) for “highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1”, is the causative agent of H5N1 flu, commonly known as “avian influenza” or “bird flu”.
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There currently is no scientific evidence that people have been infected with bird flu by eating safely handled and properly cooked poultry or eggs. Most cases of avian influenza infection in humans have resulted from direct or close contact with infected poultry or surfaces contaminated with secretions and excretions from infected birds.
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Birds & Bird Flu graphics showing avian influenza (H5N1) mixing with other ‘flu strains; image of bird flu viruses and human flu viruses entering the same cell and pandemic influenza emerging, diagram of replication of viruses showing reassortment of viral RNA genome segments (genetic mixing or recombination) creating a new viral strain (reassortant) with the potential to create a catastrophic new flu pandemic against which no flu vaccine will protect.
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Bird Virus :

Avian influenza virus usually refers to influenza A viruses found chiefly in birds, but infections can occur in humans. The risk is generally low to most people, because the viruses do not usually infect humans. However, confirmed cases of human infection have been reported since 1997.
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A bird-adapted strain of H5N1, called HPAI A(H5N1) for “highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1”, is the causative agent of H5N1 flu, commonly known as “avian influenza” or “bird flu”. It is enzootic in many bird populations, especially in Southeast Asia. One strain of HPAI A(H5N1) is spreading globally after first appearing in Asia.
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Human-to-human transmission of bird flu virus now confirmed - According to a World Health Organization (WHO) investigation, an Indonesian man who died from the H5N1 strain of bird flu almost certainly caught the disease from his 10-year-old son. He is likely the first laboratory-confirmed
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Bronchitis Virus :

Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial (pronounced “brawn-kee-ull”) tubes, or bronchi. Bronchial tubes are the air passages that extend from the windpipe into the lungs.
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Is Bronchitis caused by a virus bacteria protist or fungi?
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Infectious bronchitis virus has the ability to change rapidly in nature. Traditionally, IBV strains are classified into different serotypes based largely on virus-neutralisation (VN) tests in several laboratory systems. Determining the serotype of an IBV strain is important because it is generally accepted that different serotypes do not cross-protect.
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Canine Papilloma Virus :

The canine papilloma virus is a cause of warts in dogs. Most often seen in young dogs in and around the mouth and eyes, these lesions usually regress as the dog matures.
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The canine papillomavirus has been shown to be able to survive at least 2 months at temperatures of 40º F but only 6 hours at 98º F. As in people, viral papillomas are caused by a papillomavirus though dogs and people have very different papillomaviruses and cannot transmit their viruses across species lines.
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Papilloma viruses are small, double-stranded DNA viruses of the Papovaviridae family. Some mammals have several distinct papilloma viruseshumans have >20; cattle, 6; dogs, 3; and rabbits, 2. Different papilloma viruses often have considerable species, site, and histologic specificity.
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Canine Virus :

Canine minute virus is a type of virus of the family Parvoviridae that infects dogs. It is most similar to bovine parvovirus in its protein structure and DNA. A virus causing respiratory disease in humans has been called human bocavirus due to its similarity to both these viruses (bovine canine virus).
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Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the most dangerous and contagious virus that affects unprotected dogs. When it was first discovered in 1978, most of the puppies under five months old and 2% to 3% of older dogs died from CPV. But subsequently a parvo vaccine has helped control its spread, and CPV infection is now considered most threatening to puppies between the time of weaning and six months of age.
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The canine flu virus, also referred to as Canine Influenza Virus, Greyhound Disease, and Race Flu, is considered highly contagious respiratory infection of dogs. It was originally identified in 2005 and last years news of it flooded the internet and news. There are possible cases being documented by veterinarians in almost every state but there is not a good communication system between states to determine the full extent of the virus...Read More

Cervical Cancer Virus :

   •   Most cervix cancer can be prevented. Finding abnormal cell changes early with a Pap test can save your life. Today, cervix cancer is rare in         women who get their Pap tests.
   •   See a doctor or nurse and get a Pap test. Ask your doctor or nurse how often you should have your Pap test.
   •   HPV is a virus that can lead to cervix cancer.
   •   Almost all women who have had sex will have HPV at some time, but very few women will get cervix cancer...Read More

Because cervical cancer can be almost completely prevented using current procedures - including Pap tests, HPV testing, follow-up diagnostic testing of cervical abnormalities, and surgery to remove premalignant lesions - no one is going to do a follow-up study with a cervical cancer endpoint,” says Schiller... Read More

HPVs may also cause flat, abnormal growths in the genital area and on the cervix (the lower part of the uterus that extends into the vagina). However, HPV infections of the cervix usually do not cause any symptoms... Read More

Chickenpox Virus :

Chickenpox or chicken pox is a highly contagious illness caused by primary infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV). It usually starts with vesicular skin rash mainly on the body and head rather than at the periphery and become itchy, raw pockmarks, which mostly heal without scarring.
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Chickenpox is a rash illness caused by a virus. Once a person is exposed to the chickenpox virus, it takes between 2 and 3 weeks before the symptoms appear. Chickenpox usually occurs in childhood. Adults who contract chicken pox are usually more ill, especially with pneumonia.
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Chickenpox is caused by a virus called varicella zostervaricella zoster. People who get the virus often develop a rash of spots that look like blisters all over their bodies. The blisters are small and sit on an area of red skin that can be anywhere from the size of a pencil eraser to the size of a dime.
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Chikungunya Virus :

Chikungunya (in the Makonde language “that leans downward”) virus (CHIKV) is an insect-borne virus, of the genus Alphavirus, that is transmitted to humans by virus-carrying Aedes mosquitoes. There have been recent breakouts of CHIKV associated with severe illness. CHIKV causes an illness with symptoms similar to dengue fever.
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Chikungunya is caused by Chikungunya Virus or CHIK Virus (CHIKV) and it belongs to the alphavirus family. 27 different types of alpha viruses cause diseases in humans and other mammals. Chikungunya virus is just one of them.
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Chikungunya virus is no stranger to the Indian sub-continent. Since its first isolation in Calcutta,in 1963, there have been several reports of chikungunya virus infection in different parts of India. The last outbreak of chikungunya virus infection occurred in India in 1971. Subsequently, there has been no active or passive surveillance carried out in the country and therefore, it ‘seemed’ that the virus had ‘disappeared’ from the subcontinent.
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Chronic Epstein Barr Virus :

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a member of the herpes group and cause of infectious mononucleosis. It primarily affects young adults and children, although in children it is usually so mild that it is often overlooked. Infectious mononucleosis is fairly common and both sexes are affected equally; prognosis is excellent, and major complications are uncommon.
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Epstein-Barr virus, chronic: A form of human herpes virushuman herpes virus that produces persistent symptoms. Most people become infected with the virus at some stage in their life though they usually have few if any symptoms.
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), or human herpesvirus 4, is a gammaherpesvirus that infects more than 95% of the world’s population. The most common manifestation of primary infection with this organism is acute infectious mononucleosis, a self-limited clinical syndrome that most frequently affects adolescents and young adults.
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Comcast Virus :

Comcast virus protection is a free service offered to any customer who subscribes to any level of Comcast high-speed internet. The virus protection is offered as a free download at the Comcast.net homepage.
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I don’t know a single person on this planet who likes Comcast. Seriously, there’s not an active OR inactive customer alive who could state anything other than dismay and general malaise for the bandwidth delivery juggernaut.
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Comcast virus protection is second to none. For all the other glaring flaws facing this company, they really have hit a home run when it comes to antivirus software. Any customers who subscribes to any level of Comcast’s high-speed internet automatically qualify for free virus protection. It’s not mandatory though. Recently, Comcast switched virus protection providers from McAfee antivirus plus 2010 to a Norton suite package.
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Cough Virus :

The cough typically develops over a day or so, and may become quite irritating. Other symptoms may develop and include: fever, headache, aches and pains. Cold symptoms may occur if the infection also affects the nose. Symptoms typically peak after 2-3 days, and then gradually clear. However, the cough may persist for up to 4 weeks after the infection has gone.
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Ive been coughing non stop too also with sickness and headache.If you have more symptoms than coughing is likely that you have a caught a virus.
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The common cold is the most frequent infectious disease in humans with on average two to four infections a year in individual adults and up to 6 - 12 in individual children. Collectively, colds, influenza, and other infections with similar symptoms are included in the diagnosis of influenza-like illness. They may also be termed upper respiratory tract infections (URTI). Influenza involves the lungs while the common cold does not.
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Coxsackie Virus In Adults :

Coxsackieviruses are a common cause of infection in adults and children. The spectrum of disease caused by these viruses ranges from very mild to life-threatening. No vaccine is available, and there is no drug that specifically kills the virus. The key to prevention of coxsackievirus infection is good hand washing and covering the mouth when coughing or sneezing.
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Coxsackie virus (also written as coxsackievirus) is a member of the Picornaviridae family of viruses in the genus termed Enterovirus. Coxsackie viruses are subtype members of Enterovirus that have a single strand of ribonucleic acid (RNA) for its genetic material. The Enteroviruses are also referred to as picornaviruses (pico means “small,” so, “small RNA viruses”).
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Coxsackie viruses (enteroviruses) are a common cause of sore throats, especially in children. Adults can also be affected. Infection is transmitted via saliva and faces. Symptoms vary from none (asymptomatic) to sore throat, fever and aches. Coxsackie virus infection typically last 7-10 days.
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Croup Virus :

Croup is a condition that causes an inflammation of the upper airways the voice box (larynx) and windpipe (trachea). It often leads to a barking cough or hoarseness, especially when a child cries.
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Croup is a group of respiratory diseases that often affect infants and children[1] under age 6. It is characterized by a barking cough; a whistling, obstructive sound (stridor) as the child breathes in; and hoarseness due to obstruction in the region of the larynx. It may be mild, moderate or severe, and severe cases, with breathing difficulty, can be fatal.
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Croup is a common childhood viral illness that is easily recognized because of the distinctive characteristics that children have when they become infected. Like most viral illnesses, there is no cure for croup, but there are many symptomatic treatments that can help your child to feel better faster.
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Diarrhea Virus :

There are many possible causes of diarrhea in children but the most common are viruses. This is why most children with diarrhea get better on their own, without any specific medications or antibiotics.
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Diarrhea is a very common symptom. Everyone is familiar with a sudden bout of acute diarrhea. Although many people assume sudden diarrhea is “something you ate” (i.e. food poisoning), it is commonly caused by infectious diarrhea (usually a gastrointestinal virus) and also parasitic conditions such as giardia or crypto.
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Gastroenteritis means inflammation of the stomach and small and large intestines. Viral gastroenteritis is an infection caused by a variety of viruses that results in vomiting or diarrhea. It is often called the “stomach flu,” although it is not caused by the influenza viruses.
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Different Types Of Virus :

There are Different Types of Computer Viruses could be classified in (origin, techniques, types of files they infect, where they hide, the kind of damage they cause, the type of operating system or platform they attack) etc. Let us have a look at them...
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Here, we shall show you the diferent types of virus, if you do not want to follow the order we have made for you, you can proceed to click on any links which you want.
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Viral classification is made difficult by a lack of fossil evidence viruses fossilize poorly and controversy over whether viruses are living organisms or not. Unlike other organisms, new viruses sometimes emerge de novo from the genomes of preexisting organisms, making it difficult to build coherent family trees. However, this doesn’t stop virologists from trying.
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Epstein Barr Virus Symptoms :

The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also called human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is a possible, but not scientifically proven, cancer causing virus of the herpes family, which includes herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, and is one of the most common viruses in humans. Epstein-Barr virus occurs worldwide. It is known to cause infectious mononucleosis, is implicated in the causation of Burkitt's lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma[1], and is suspected to have a role in the pathogenesis of chronic fatigue syndrome and multiple sclerosis...Read more

Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a common human virus that causes infectious mononucleosis and plays a role in the emergence of two rare forms of cancer: Burkitt's lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.Some doctors and medical textbooks describe and diagnose EBV as infectious mononucleosis and vise-versa. To accommodate this association, this health profile will use EBV and mononucleosis ("mono") interchangeably...Read more

Epstein-Barr virus, frequently referred to as EBV, is a member of the herpesvirus family and one of the most common human viruses. The virus occurs worldwide, and most people become infected with EBV sometime during their lives. In the United States, as many as 95% of adults between 35 and 40 years of age have been infected. Infants become susceptible to EBV as soon as maternal antibody protection (present at birth) disappears. Many children become infected with EBV, and these infections usually cause no symptoms or are indistinguishable from the other mild, brief illnesses of childhood. In the United States and in other developed countries, many persons are not infected with EBV in their childhood years. When infection with EBV occurs during adolescence or young adulthood, it causes infectious mononucleosis 35% to 50% of the time...Read more

Epstein Barr Virus Treatment :

psteinBarr virus (EBV) causes infectious mononucleosis and oral hairy leucoplakia, and is associated with a number of malignancies. There are, however, no regulatory agency-approved treatments for EBV-related diseases... Read More

Epstein-Barr virus causes a number of diseases, including infectious mononucleosis.
   •   The infection is spread through kissing or other close contact with an infected person.

Epstein Virus :

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Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a common human virus that causes infectious mononucleosis and plays a role in the emergence of two rare forms of cancer: Burkitt’s lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma... Read More

FLU Virus :

Influenza, commonly referred to as the flu, is an infectious disease caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses), that affects birds and mammals. The most common symptoms of the disease are chills, fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, weakness/fatigue and general discomfort... Read More

The flu is caused by the influenza virus. There are many different strains of the virus and they mutate frequently. That is why people continue to come down with the flu year after year... Read More

A new study, conducted by researchers at the Ohio State University, analysing the behaviour of seasonal H1N1 suggests that pandemic flu may become resistant to Tamiflu, the main drug used against it... Read More

Flu Virus Symptoms :

Influenza, commonly known as “the flu,” is a highly contagious viral infection of the respiratory tract. Although the flu affects both sexes and all age groups, kids tend to get it more often than adults. The illness even has its own season from November to April, with most cases occurring between late December and early March... Read More

If you have the flu, you’ll have lots of company. Each year from November to April, all across the United States, as many as 60 million people come down with the flu. Although children get the flu most often, people in every age group including teens can catch it... Read More

Flu symptoms can be mild or severe and if they’re mild can become severe without much notice. Be aware of your body and monitor your body temperature. Flu symptoms can come on suddenly be sure you know your treatment and prevention options so you can be prepared... Read More

Genital Herpes Virus :

Genital herpes is a common, highly infectious disease caused by a virus. It is transmitted from one person to another during sexual activity. Genital herpes causes blisters or groups of small ulcers (open sores) on and around the genitals in both men and women.
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Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by the herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2). Most genital herpes is caused by HSV-2. Most individuals have no or only minimal signs or symptoms from HSV-1 or HSV-2 infection. When signs do occur, they typically appear as one or more blisters on or around the genitals or rectum.
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Genital herpes is a recurrent, lifelong skin infection caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). There are 2 types of HSV: herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2).
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Genital Warts Virus :

Of these, more than 40 types can infect the anogenital tract (genital tract and anus) of men and women and cause genital warts (known as condylomata acuminata or venereal warts). A subgroup of the HPVs that infect the anogenital tract (genital tract and anus) can lead to precancerous changes in the uterine cervix and cause uterine, cervical cancer.
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So it’s important for men to understand how to reduce the risks of HPV infection. It can increase a man’s risk of getting genital cancers, although these cancers are not common. HPV can also cause genital warts in men, just as in women.
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Genital warts (or Condyloma acuminata, venereal warts, anal warts and anogenital warts) is a highly contagious sexually transmitted disease caused by some sub-types of human papillomavirus (HPV). It is spread through direct skin-to-skin contact during oral, genital, or anal sex with an infected partner. Warts are the most easily recognized symptom of genital HPV infection. They can be caused by strains 6, 11, 30, 42, 43, 44, 45, 51, 52 and 54 of HPV; types 6 and 11 are responsible for 90% of genital warts cases
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H5N1 Virus :

Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as “bird flu”, A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. A bird-adapted strain of H5N1, called HPAI A(H5N1) for “highly pathogenic avian influenza virus of type A of subtype H5N1”, is the causative agent of H5N1 flu, commonly known as “avian influenza” or “bird flu”. It is enzootic in many bird populations, especially in Southeast Asia.
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Avian influenza, sometimes avian flu, and commonly bird flu, refers to “influenza caused by viruses adapted to birds.” clarification needed] Of the greatest concern is highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). “Bird flu” is a phrase similar to “swine flu,” “dog flu,” “horse flu,” or “human flu” in that it refers to an illness caused by any of many different strains of influenza viruses that have adapted to a specific host.
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Avian influenza is an infection caused by avian (bird) influenza (flu) viruses. These influenza viruses occur naturally among birds. Wild birds worldwide carry the viruses in their intestines, but usually do not get sick from them. However, avian influenza is very contagious among birds and can make some domesticated birds, including chickens, ducks, and turkeys, very sick and kill them.
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Hand Foot And Mouth Virus :

Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a human syndrome caused by intestinal viruses of the Picornaviridae family. The most common strains causing HFMD are Coxsackie A virus and Enterovirus 71 (EV71).HFMD usually affects infants and children, and is quite common. It is moderately contagious and is spread through direct contact with the mucus, saliva, or feces of an infected person. It typically occurs in small epidemics in nursery schools or kindergartens, usually during the summer and autumn months. The usual incubation period is 37 days.
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Humans are very rarely affected. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a picornavirus, the prototypic member of the Aphthovirus genus in the Picornaviridae family. It is a highly variable and transmissible virus
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Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral illness of infants and children. The disease causes fever and blister-like eruptions in the mouth and/or a skin rash. HFMD is often confused with foot-and-mouth (also called hoof-and-mouth) disease, a disease of cattle, sheep, and swine; however, the two diseases are not relatedthey are caused by different viruses. Humans do not get the animal disease, and animals do not get the human disease.
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HBV Virus :

Hepatitis B is an infectious illness caused by hepatitis B virus (HBV) which infects the liver of hominoidae, including humans, and causes an inflammation called hepatitis. Originally known as “serum hepatitis”, the disease has caused epidemics in parts of Asia and Africa, and it is endemic in China. About a third of the world’s population, more than 2 billion people, have been infected with the hepatitis B virus.
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a member of the Hepadnavirus family.[7] The virus particle, (virion) consists of an outer lipid envelope and an icosahedral nucleocapsid core composed of protein. The nucleocapsid encloses the viral DNA and a DNA polymerase that has reverse transcriptase activity similar to retroviruses
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The term ‘hepatitis’ simply means inflammation of the liver. Hepatitis may be caused by a virus or a toxin such as alcohol. Other viruses that can cause injury to liver cells include the hepatitis A and hepatitis C viruses.
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Hep C Virus :

Hepatitis C is an infectious disease affecting the liver, caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The infection is often asymptomatic, but once established, chronic infection can progress to scarring of the liver (fibrosis), and advanced scarring (cirrhosis) which is generally apparent after many years. In some cases, those with cirrhosis will go on to develop liver failure or other complications of cirrhosis, including liver cancer[1] or life threatening esophageal varices and gastric varices.
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a small (55-65 nm in size), enveloped, positive sense single strand RNA virus in the family Flaviviridae. Although Hepatitis A virus, Hepatitis B virus, and Hepatitis C virus have similar names (because they all cause liver inflammation), these are distinctly different viruses both genetically and clinically.
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Hepatitis C is an infection of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). It is difficult for the human immune system to eliminate the virus from the body, and infection with HCV usually becomes chronic.
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Herpangina Virus :

Herpangina is caused by a virus known as the “Coxsackie virus”, because it was first found in patients in the town of Coxsackie in eastern New York. (There are actually many different types of Coxsackie virus which cause several different diseases; herpangina is caused by only one or two of these “serotypes”.)
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Herpangina, an infection of the throat which causes red-ringed blisters and ulcers on the tonsils and soft palate, the fleshy back portion of the roof of the mouth.
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Herpangina, also called mouth blisters, is the name of a painful mouth infection caused by coxsackieviruses. Usually, herpangina is produced by one particular strain of coxsackie virus A (and the term “herpangina virus” refers to coxsackievirus A) but it can also be caused by coxsackievirus B or echoviruses.
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Herpes B Virus :

Herpes B virus (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1, herpesvirus simiae, B virus) is the endemic simplexvirus of macaque monkeys. B virus is an alphaherpesvirus, which consists of a subset of herpesviruses that travel within hosts using the peripheral nerves. As such, this neurotropic virus is not found in the blood.
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Cercopithecine Herpesvirus-1, also known as B-Virus, is a member of the herpes group of viruses that occurs naturally in Macaque monkeys and possible in other Old World monkeys. Infection with B-Virus produces very mild disease in the monkey. Most have no obvious evidence of infection. Some monkeys may have vesicles (small blisters) which progress to ulcers in the mouth, on the face, lips, or genitals and/or eye.
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Herpes Simplex Virus 2 :

Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as Human herpes virus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and -2), are two members of the herpes virus family, Herpesviridae, that infect humans.[1]  Both HSV-1 and -2 are ubiquitous and contagious. They can be spread when an infected person is producing and shedding the virus...Read more

There are two types of herpes simplex viruses (HSV). HSV type 2 is the one that most commonly causes genital herpes. You can get HSV type 2 during sexual contact with someone who has a genital HSV-2 infection. The infection causes painful sores on the genitals in both men and women. HSV type 1 is the herpes virus that is usually responsible for cold sores of the mouth, the so-called "fever blisters." You get HSV-1 by coming into contact with the saliva of an infected person...Read more

Either herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) or herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) can cause infection. HSV-1 is the most common cause of lesions that appear around the mouth and on the lips. HSV-2 is the typical cause of genital herpes. Both conditions are highly contagious and are spread by direct contact with the lesions of another infected individual such as a playmate, parent, or caretaker. The virus can even spread in the absence of symptoms or visible lesions...Read more

Herpes Virus 2 :

HSV-2 may refer to:

   •   Herpes simplex virus 2, a human pathogen
   •   HSV-2 Swift, a non-commissioned catamaran leased by the United States Navy... Read More

HSV-2 is the one that most commonly causes genital herpes. The infection causes painful, ulcerative sores on the genitals in both men and women. However, HSV-1 can cause genital herpes, and HSV-2 can cause cold sores... Read More

Herpes Virus 6 :

Primary HHV-6 infection usually occurs in infants and is the most common cause of fever-induced seizures in children aged 6-24 months. Acute HHV-6 infection is rare in immunocompetent adults but may manifest as a mononucleosislike illness with fever, lymphadenopathy, and hepatitis or encephalitis, with negative test results for CMV or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
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Human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) is the virus that most commonly causes the childhood disease roseola. It was first isolated in 1986. Two genetically distinct variants have been discovered: human herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) and human herpesvirus 6B (HHV-6B).
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HHV-6 is a member of the betaherpesviridae (subfamily of the herpesvirinae) which also includes HHV-7 and Cytomegalovirus (HHV-5 or HCMV). There are two subtypes of HHV-6 termed HHV-6A and HHV-6B.
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Herpes Virus Cure :

Right now genital herpes and oral herpes are only treatable, not curable. But a July 2008 letter to the editor that appeared in Nature suggests that that may not always be the case.
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Unlike other sexually transmitted diseases, herpes cannot be cured because medication that will attack the virus while it lies dormant in the nerve cells will also damage the nerve cells.
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Genital herpes is an incurable condition that has inflicted mankind since ancient times and being a virus, it has no cure. The herpes simplex virus that causes this problem spreads via sexual contact. It is believed that the herpes virus is found in over 50% of the US population and is spreading fast.
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Herpes Virus Pictures :

HSV infections can also occur throughout the body, often on the finger. This gallery shows pictures of various rashes caused by the herpes virus. *Please note - there are pictures of genital lesions in this gallery.
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The herpes virus can cause a rash anywhere on the skin - not just in the mouth or genital area. This picture shows a herpes infection around the eye. Note the vesicles around the eyelid and ulcerations on the eyelid.
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The Big Picture Book of Viruses: Herpesviridae - 26 Å map of HSV-1 A capsid reconstructed from 140 particles selected from 400-kV spot-scan electron micrographs of the A-capsids of HSV-1 embedded in vitreous ice. The top inserts show a computationally isolated hexon (blue), penton (yellow) and triplex (pink).
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Herpes Virus Symptoms :

The symptoms of genital herpes vary greatly from person to person, with many people having no noticeable symptoms (asymptomatic).
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What are the symptoms of Herpes? Most people who have herpes don’t know it because they never have any symptoms, or they do not recognize any symptoms they might have. When symptoms are present, they can be different in each person.
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When Will the Symptoms of Herpes Appear? Once you have been exposed to the virus through direct skin-to-skin contact, it can take anywhere from two to 20 days before your first episode of symptoms of genital herpes will occur.
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Herpes Virus Treatment :

Treatment of Herpes Simplex - Unlike other sexually transmitted diseases, herpes cannot be cured because medication that will attack the virus while it lies dormant in the nerve cells will also damage the nerve cells. However, there is treatment available for acute outbreaks that involves the use of anti-viral drugs such as Acyclovir, Valaclovir or Famcyclovir.
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One of the reasons that herpes infections are difficult to treat effectively is that the virus hides in the cells of the nervous system between outbreaks. During these times, when the infection is latent, the virus becomes effectively invisible to drugs and the immune system.
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What’s new in the treatment of Herpes? Researchers are working on many drugs that may eventually provide faster diagnosis and better treatment of recurrent genital herpes.
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Herpes Zoster Virus
Hijack Virus
HIV AIDS Virus
HIV Virus
HIV Virus Structure
HPV Virus In Men
HPV Virus In Women
HPV Virus Pictures
HPV Virus Symptoms
HPV Virus Warts
HSV 2 Virus
HTLV Virus
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Hiv
Human Papilloma Virus Pictures
Human Papilloma Virus Symptoms
A human papillomavirus (HPV) is a member of the papillomavirus family of viruses that is capable of infecting humans. Like all papillomaviruses, HPVs establish productive infections only in the stratified epithelium of the skin or mucous membranes. While the majority of the nearly 200 known types of HPV cause no symptoms in most people, some types can cause warts  (verrucae), while others can in a minority of cases lead to cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, and anus in women or cancers of the anus and penis in men...Read more

Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a group of more than 100 related viruses. They are called papillomaviruses because certain types may cause warts, or papillomas, which are benign (noncancerous) tumors. The HPVs that cause the common warts which grow on hands and feet are different from those that cause growths in the throat  or genital area. Some types of HPV are associated with certain types of cancer (1). These are called high-risk, oncogenic, or carcinogenic HPVs... Read more

Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are common viruses that can cause warts. There are more than 100 types of HPV. Most are harmless, but about 30 types put you at risk for cancer. These types affect the genitals and you get them through sexual contact with an infected partner. They are classified as either low-risk or high-risk. Low-risk HPV can cause genital warts. High-risk HPV can lead to cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, and anus in women. In men, it can lead to cancers of the anus and penis... Read more

Human Parvo Virus
Influenza Virus Vaccine
Klez Virus
Koobface Virus
Liver Virus
Lung Virus
Malaria Virus
Meningitis Virus
MIRC Virus
Molluscum Contagiosum Virus
Monaronadona Virus
Mononucleosis Virus
Mouth Virus
Netsky Virus
New Flu Virus
Nile Virus Symptoms
Nimda Virus
Oral Herpes Virus
Papilloma Virus Vaccine
Parvo Virus Dogs

Pink Eye Virus
Plum Pox Virus
Sasser Virus
Shingles Virus
STD Virus
Stomach Flu Virus
Stomach Virus Contagious
Stomach Virus Diarrhea
Stomach Virus In Children
Stomach Virus Incubation
Stomach Virus Incubation Period
Stomach Virus Symptoms
Stomach Virus Treatment
Storm Virus
Strep Virus
Throat Virus
Tongue Virus
Tuberculosis Virus
Virus Cure
Virus Symptoms
Virus Synth
Virus Taxonomy
Vundo Virus
Wart Virus
West Nile Virus
West Nile virus (WNV) is a virus of the family Flaviviridae. Part of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) antigenic complex of viruses, it is found in both tropical  and temperate regions. It mainly infects birds, but is known to infect humans, horses, dogs, cats, bats, chipmunks, skunks, squirrels, and domestic rabbits. The main route of human infection  is through the bite of an infected mosquito... Read more

West Nile virus was first identified in 1937 in Uganda in eastern Africa. It was first discovered in the United States in the summer of 1999 in New York. Since then, the virus has spread throughout the United States. The West Nile virus is a type of virus known as a flavivirus. Researchers believe West Nile virus is spread when a mosquito bites an infected bird and then bites a person. Mosquitos carry the highest amounts of virus in the early fall, which is why the rate of the disease increases in late August to early September. The risk of disease decreases as the weather becomes colder and mosquitos die off... Read more

West Nile virus is caused by a bite from an infected mosquito that's already carrying the virus, but it's important to remember that not all mosquitoes are infected. In many parts of the United States, the risk of being bitten by an infected mosquito is greatest from July to early September. But in some parts of the country, mosquito bites can be a risk all year long...Read more

West Nile Virus Treatment :

West Nile Virus Vaccine
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that is emerging as a global pathogen. In the last decade, virulent strains of the virus have been associated with significant outbreaks of human and animal disease in Europe, the Middle East and North America. Efforts to develop human and veterinary vaccines have taken both traditional and novel approaches. A formalin-inactivated whole virus vaccine has been approved for use in horses...Read More

WNV symptoms may vary from fever and headache, to a polio-like syndrome with paralysis. Infection rarely results in death. The vaccine used in this study contains DNA that instructs the body to produce a small amount of a protein found in WNV. If the body creates resistance or immunity to these proteins, then the vaccine may protect against WNV. Study participants cannot get WNV from the vaccine...Read More

HPV Virus :

At least 1 in every 2 sexually active young women has had a genital HPV infection. Any sexually active person—no matter what color, race, gender, or sexual orientation—can get HPV. HPV is mainly spread by sexual contact. Very rarely, a mother who is infected with the HPV virus can infect her newborn baby during the delivery.
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What is hpv virus and how to find out in male?
Human Papalloma Virus, It Is transmitted sexually, blood work Is the best way to diagnose.
Source(s):
Twenty years as a Doctor of Traditional Naturopaty
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FLU Virus
Flu virus transported by dust storms
Influenza viruses, including the avian H5N1 subtype, may be carried in the air for long distances and across continents by dust storms, according to new research in Taiwan. The concentration of influenza viruses in the air was found to be 20 to 30 times higher during dust storms than at other times.

The study is the first to measure influenza virus concentrations in ambient air, according to the authors. It follows a number of studies showing that airborne viruses can be found in indoor environments such as hospitals and offices.
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Your immune system is your body’s #1 defense against the invasion of bacteria and viruses including the Bird Flu Virus; germs that can make you sick. People with strong immune systems naturally eliminate the beginnings of most infections before they start. Most people do not have a strong immune system and need nutritional help to boost this life-saving system. Five years of testing and many clinical trials have lead to the development of Immunol™, an all natural, doctor recommended program that will keep your immune system in great shape and will keep you healthier than ever.
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Herpes Virus
Herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), also known as Human herpes virus 1 and 2 (HHV-1 and -2), are two members of the herpes virus family, Herpesviridae, that infect humans.[1] Both HSV-1 and -2 are ubiquitous and contagious. They can be spread when an infected person is producing and shedding the virus.
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The Herpesviridae are a large family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in animals, including humans. The members of this family are also known as herpesviruses. The family name is derived from the Greek word herpein (“to creep”), referring to the latent, recurring infections typical of this group of viruses. Herpesviridae can cause latent or lytic infections.
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HIV Virus
If you were to look at a HIV virus particle under a microscope, it would look something like this:
The size of the particle is around 0.0001mm.
(For a more detailed simulation, see 3D HIV.)
There are two main parts, essentially: the inner core (the “pill-shaped” section in the diagram), and the viral membrane. Let’s look at these in a little more detail:
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AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, a disease that makes it difficult for the body to fight off infectious diseases. The human immunodeficiency virus known as HIV causes AIDS by infecting and damaging part of the body’s defenses against infection — its lymphocytes, which are a type of white blood cell in the body’s immune (infection-fighting) system that is supposed to fight off invading germs.
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Virus Symptoms
Stomach virus or Gastroenteritis is otherwise known as stomach flu. Diarrhea is the major symptom of stomach upset. The other stomach flu symptoms such as vomiting and feeling comfortable when stuck in toilet for long hours make a person get upset. Everything happens due to viral infection.
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During the mid-20th century, identification of influenza subtypes became possible, allowing accurate diagnosis of transmission to humans. Since then, only 50 such transmissions have been confirmed. These strains of swine flu rarely pass from human to human. Symptoms of zoonotic swine flu in humans are similar to those of influenza and of influenza-like illness in general, namely chills, fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, weakness and general discomfort.
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West Nile Virus
West Nile virus (WNV) is a virus of the family Flaviviridae. Part of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) antigenic complex of viruses, it is found in both tropical and temperate regions. It mainly infects birds, but is known to infect humans, horses, dogs, cats, bats, chipmunks, skunks, squirrels, and domestic rabbits. The main route of human infection is through the bite of an infected mosquito.
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West Nile virus (WNV) is an infectious disease that first appeared in the United States in 1999. Infected mosquitoes spread the virus that causes it. People who contract WNV usually have no symptoms or mild symptoms. Those with symptoms may have a fever, headache, body aches, skin rash or swollen lymph glands.
If West Nile virus enters the brain, however, it can be deadly. It may cause inflammation of the brain, called encephalitis, or inflammation of the tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord, called meningitis.
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Epstein Virus
Epstein-Barr virus: A virus, abbreviated EBV, best known as the cause of infectious mononucleosis (“mono”).
Infection with EBV is characterized by fatigue and general malaise. Infection with EBV is fairly common and is usually a transient and minor thing. However, in some individuals EBV can trigger chronic illness, including immune and lymphoproliferative syndromes. It is a particular danger to people with compromised immune systems, such as from AIDS.
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), or human herpesvirus 4, is a gammaherpesvirus that infects more than 95% of the world’s population. The most common manifestation of primary infection with this organism is acute infectious mononucleosis, a self-limited clinical syndrome that most frequently affects adolescents and young adults. Classic symptoms include sore throat, fever, and lymphadenopathy. Infection with Epstein-Barr virus in younger children is usually asymptomatic or mild.
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HPV Virus in Women
Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a group of more than 100 related viruses. They are called papillomaviruses because certain types may cause warts, or papillomas, which are benign (noncancerous) tumors. The HPVs that cause the common warts which grow on hands and feet are different from those that cause growths in the throat or genital area. Some types of HPV are associated with certain types of cancer (1). These are called high-risk, oncogenic, or carcinogenic HPVs.
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Treatment for HPV Virus in Women
The human papillomavirus (HPV) is common among women in the United States. The virus comes in many forms and less than a third of these are transmitted through sexual activity. A woman may not even realize she has HPV unless she develops symptoms or undergoes a test performed by her doctor. In some cases, HPV can cause devastating problems, including cervical cancer. Although frightening, there are many treatments for women dealing with HPV.
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MRSA Virus
Learning about why the MRSA virus is so bad is important not only for your health but that of you family. There are common symptoms that may be incurred by having MRSA. How you react to them with solutions is of vital importance, and could be life saving in the long run.
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Staphylococcus aureus (staph) are bacteria normally found on the skin and in the nose in 33 percent of the population. Overgrowth of normal bacteria causes infection. MRSA infections are not easily eradicated and can be problematic for anyone with weakened immunity or chronic health problems. When bacteria become resistant to treatment, they’re referred to as super bugs. The term is often used in reference to the MRSA virus, which is actually not a virus at all.
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Nile Virus Symptoms
How to Identify West Nile Virus Symptoms

It usually takes two to 15 days for any signs or symptoms to show after you have been infected with West Nile virus from a mosquito bite. Most people that are infected with West Nile virus won’t show any symptoms. However, 20 percent of people do develop an infection called West Nile fever that does have a few symptoms you can look for. Most of the symptoms will last for three to six days before a full recovery. However, 1 percent of people will have serious neurological infections that can have long term affects. If you believe you have West Nile Virus you should consult with your doctor.
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The East Central District Health Department (ECDHD) recently reported it’s first probable case of West Nile Virus for 2010 in a Colfax County male aged 40-55.
“There are no other cases of West Nile virus in the state reported at this time,” said Executive Director Rebecca Rayman. “We do have mosquitos testing positive with the virus in several areas of the state.
“With the extensive flooding and the standing water that results from it, we can expect more West Nile cases this year.”
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H5N1 Virus
The highly pathogenic influenza A virus subtype H5N1 virus is an emerging avian influenza virus that has been causing global concern as a potential pandemic threat. It is often referred to simply as “bird flu” or “avian influenza” even though it is only one subtype of avian influenza causing virus.
H5N1 has killed millions of poultry in a growing number of countries throughout Asia, Europe and Africa.
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Influenza A (H5N1) virus – also called “H5N1 virus” – is an influenza A virus subtype that occurs mainly in birds, is highly contagious among birds, and can be deadly to them. H5N1 virus does not usually infect people, but infections with these viruses have occurred in humans. Most of these cases have resulted from people having direct or close contact with H5N1-infected poultry or H5N1-contaminated surfaces.
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Virus Cure
Viruses can’t multiply until they are inside the body’s cells. This is the reason why the treatment of virus infections is usually left up to the patient’s own immune system, although it may be hard to accept when the doctor says the only cure is for ‘nature to take its course’. The treatment of virus infections such as influenza will usually involve:
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Genital herpes is an incurable condition that has inflicted mankind since ancient times and being a virus, it has no cure. The herpes simplex virus that causes this problem spreads via sexual contact. It is believed that the herpes virus is found in over 50% of the US population and is spreading fast.
Our aim is to help stop or at least, slow the spread of this virus by giving you the information and knowledge you need to control the virus and to live a normal life if you have been infected with the virus. NOTE: It is not the end of your life, especially the bedroom part of your life, if you have contracted genital herpes...
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Flu Virus Symptoms
Although the name ‘swine flu’ brings up a lot of extra fear and worry, it is important to note that swine flu is just an influenza A H1N1 virus.
That means that it is just another type of flu virus, just like that causes our typical seasonal flu symptoms. The big difference is that the current swine influenza A (H1N1) virus is new and most of us don’t have any immunity to it. That is why it so easily became a pandemic virus (with the ability to cause a global outbreak), because it could easily spread from person to person.
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Influenza, commonly called “the flu,” is an illness caused by RNA viruses that infect the respiratory tract of many animals, birds, and humans. In most people, the infection results in the person getting fever, cough, headache, and malaise (tired, no energy); some people also may develop a sore throat, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The majority of individuals has symptoms for about one to two weeks and then recovers with no problems.
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Mouth Virus
The human papilloma virus (HPV) is one of the most common virus groups in the world to affect the skin and mucosal areas of the body. Over eighty types of HPV have been identified. Different types of the human papillomavirus are known to infect different parts of the body. It infects the epithelial cells of skin and mucosa. The epithelial surfaces include all areas covered by skin and/or mucosa such as the mouth, throat, tongue, tonsils, vagina, penis, and anus. Infection with the virus occurs when these areas come into contact with a virus, allowing it to transfer between epithelial cells.
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Foot-and-mouth disease virus is the pathogen that causes Foot-and-mouth disease.[1]
Soon after infection, the single stranded positive RNA that constitutes the viral genome is efficiently translated using a cap-independent mechanism driven by the internal ribosome entry site element (IRES). This process occurs concomitantly with the inhibition of cellular protein synthesis, caused by the expression of viral proteases. Mature virus proteins are produced from the +ssRNA genome via cotranslational 2A ´cleavage´ mechanism. Viral RNA as well as viral proteins interact with different components of the host cell, acting as key determinants of viral pathogenesis. In depth knowledge of the molecular basis of the viral cycle is needed to control viral pathogenesis and disease spreading.
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HIV AIDS Virus
To answer the question what is HIV AIDS, we have to start early in the epidemic. In 1985, scientists discovered the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and with it the question what is aids was answered. HIV is a virus that is transmitted from person to person through the exchange of body fluids such as blood, semen, breast milk and vaginal secretions. Sexual contact is the most common way to spread HIV AIDS, but it can also be transmitted by sharing needles when injecting drugs, or during childbirth and breastfeeding. As HIV AIDS reproduces, it damages the body’s immune system and the body becomes susceptible to illness and infection. There is no known cure for HIV infection.
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In 1981, homosexual men with symptoms of a disease that now are considered typical of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were first described in Los Angeles and New York. The men had an unusual type of lung infection (pneumonia) called Pneumocystis carinii (now known as Pneumocystis jiroveci) pneumonia (PCP) and rare skin tumors called Kaposi’s sarcomas. The patients were noted to have a severe reduction in a type of cell in the blood that is an important part of the immune system, called CD4 cells. These cells, often referred to as CD4 T cells, help the body fight infections. Shortly thereafter, this disease was recognized throughout the United States, Western Europe, and Africa.
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Stomach Virus Symptoms
Some of the most common symptoms of Stomach Flu are: diarrhea, fever, headache, dehydration and vomiting. Vomiting and fever may or may not occur, but diarrhea almost always occurs. The symptoms of stomach flu usually takes several days to appear.
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Gastroenteritis (also known as gastric flu or stomach flu, although unrelated to influenza) is inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, involving both the stomach and the small intestine and resulting in acute diarrhea. It can be transferred by contact with contaminated food and water. The inflammation is caused most often by an infection from certain viruses or less often by bacteria, their toxins, parasites, or an adverse reaction to something in the diet or medication. Worldwide, inadequate treatment of gastroenteritis kills 5 to 8 million people per year, and is a leading cause of death among infants and children under
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Throat Virus
This virus also causes immunocompromised states, so secondary opportunistic infections will arise more frequently once someone has this chronic sore throat virus. This is a persistent virus, and once caught, it does not seem to resolve, just like the unresolved infections found in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). It has been observed that this chronic sore throat virus gradually transmits from person-to-person through normal household contact, so once one person has it at home, most other household members will catch this virus within a year or so. This chronic sore throat virus has a very rapid incubation period – often taking less than 8 hours from time you catch the virus, to the point when the first sore throat or gastrointestinal symptoms appear (after which the fever lasts 1-2 days).
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A sore throat is discomfort, pain or scratchiness in the throat. A sore throat often makes it painful to swallow.It is a common disorder of the throat and can occur at any time during any season, time and place.Virtually every child and adult gets a sore throat once or two timesin a year.It’s a special kind of torture that everyone from opera stars to off-key shower warblers dreads.
Sore throats can be caused by many things. Viruses may lead to a sore throat. Bacteria can also cause a sore throat, as can smoking, breathing polluted air, drinking alcohol, and hay fever and other allergie.
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EBV Virus
Epstein-Barr virus, frequently referred to as EBV, is a member of the herpesvirus family and one of the most common human viruses. The virus occurs worldwide, and most people become infected with EBV sometime during their lives. In the United States, as many as 95% of adults between 35 and 40 years of age have been infected. Infants become susceptible to EBV as soon as maternal antibody protection (present at birth) disappears. Many children become infected with EBV, and these infections usually cause no symptoms or are indistinguishable from the other mild, brief illnesses of childhood. In the United States and in other developed countries, many persons are not infected with EBV in their childhood years
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Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a common human virus that causes infectious mononucleosis and plays a role in the emergence of two rare forms of cancer: Burkitt’s lymphoma, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Some doctors and medical textbooks describe and diagnose EBV as infectious mononucleosis and vise-versa. To accommodate this association, this health profile will use EBV and mononucleosis (“mono”) interchangeably.
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Herpes Virus 2
HSV-2 may refer to:
• Herpes simplex virus 2, a human pathogen
• HSV-2 Swift, a non-commissioned catamaran leased by the United States Navy
• This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the same title.
If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article.
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There are two types of HSV, HSV-1 and HSV-2.
HSV-1 is usually responsible for cold sores (fever blisters) of the lips and mouth.
HSV-2 is the one that most commonly causes genital herpes. The infection causes painful, ulcerative sores on the genitals in both men and women.
However, HSV-1 can cause genital herpes, and HSV-2 can cause cold sores.
Genital herpes is common. In the United States, one out of five of the total adolescent and adult population is infected with HSV.
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Bird Virus
Bird Flu Virus has Mutated into Form That’s Deadly to Humans
3/6/2008 - (NaturalNews) The avian flu has undergone a critical mutation making it easier for the virus to infect humans, according to a study conducted by researchers at the University of Wisconsin at Madison and published in the journal PLoS Pathogens. “We...
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The contamination was discovered when ferrets at a laboratory in the Czech Republic died after being inoculated with vaccine made from the samples early this month. The material came from Deerfield, Illinois-based Baxter, which reported the incident to the Austrian Ministry of Health, Sigrid Rosenberger, a ministry spokeswoman, said today in a telephone interview.
“This was infected with a bird flu virus,” Rosenberger said. “There were some people from the company who handled it.”
The material was intended for use in laboratories, and none of the lab workers have fallen ill. The incident is drawing scrutiny over the safety of research using the H5N1 bird flu strain that’s killed more than three-fifths of the people known to have caught the bug worldwide. Some scientists say the 1977 Russian flu, the most recent global outbreak, began when a virus escaped from a laboratory.
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Canine Virus
Parvo – A Dangerous Canine Virus
Friday February 20, 2004
Guest author Shirley Greene offers this excellent article on Canine Parvovirus (CPV), a potentially fatal disease in dogs. I remember when Parvo first “erupted” in 1978. Dogs of all ages died, as this was a new virus on the scene and no one was immunized. Now, thanks to vaccinations, most dogs are protected. Puppies prior to vaccinations are the biggest risk group. Read and learn how to keep your dog healthy!
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In dogs, the warts caused by the canine papilloma virus often have a jagged surface and may appear to have a cauliflower-like appearance. They most often occur on the lips and muzzle of the dog. Less frequently, these growths may be seen on the eyelids or even on the eyes themselves. On occasion, they can also be found on the feet, between the toes and, less commonly, on other parts of the body. Papillomas, or wart-like lesions, can be seen singly or in groups.
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Bird Flu Virus
Birds, just like people, get the flu. Bird flu viruses infect birds, including chickens, other poultry and wild birds such as ducks. Most bird flu viruses can only infect other birds. However, bird flu can pose health risks to people. The first case of a bird flu virus infecting a person directly, H5N1, was in Hong Kong in 1997. Since then, the bird flu virus has spread to birds in countries in Asia, Africa and Europe.
Human infection is still very rare, but the virus that causes the infection in birds might change, or mutate, to more easily infect humans. This could lead to a pandemic, or a worldwide outbreak of the illness.
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Bird flu may refer to:
Biology and disease
• Avian influenza, influenza endemic to birds.
• Influenzavirus A, the causative agent for bird flu; the genus of the Orthomyxoviridae family. of viruses to which all viruses responsible for Avian influenza belongs to, but also includes viruses that are endemic to humans and other animals.
• H5N1, a subtype of Influenza A virus endemic to birds, currently perceived as a significant emerging pandemic threat.
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Herpes Simplex Virus 2
Herpes is contracted through direct contact with an active lesion or body fluid of an infected person.[18] Herpes transmission occurs between discordant partners; a person with a history of infection (HSV seropositive) can pass the virus to an HSV seronegative person. The only way to contract Herpes simplex virus 2 is through direct skin-to-skin contact with an infected individual.[citation needed] To infect a new individual, HSV travels through tiny breaks in the skin or mucous membranes in the mouth or genital areas. Even microscopic abrasions on mucous membranes are sufficient to allow viral entry.
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Herpes simplex virus 2 (HSV-2) is usually, but not always, sexually transmitted. Symptoms include genital ulcers or sores. However, some people with HSV-2 have no symptoms. Up to 30% of adults in the U.S. have antibodies against HSV-2. Cross-infection of type 1 and 2 viruses may occur from oral-genital contact. That is, you can get genital herpes on your mouth, and oral herpes on your genital area.
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Diarrhea Virus
Bovine Virus Diarrhea virus has been isolated from alpaca crias from sites around North America. Dr Dubovi, our virologist, has been working with alpaca farms on the East Coast and offers the following comments about testing:
The extent of the problem in alpacas is unknown. About a dozen PI crias have been identified. The Guelph group has a paper coming out in JVDI on the one that they had. I am not sure how the ACE (antigen capture ELISA) is performing.
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Bovine viral diarrhea virus, or BVDV, is a major viral pathogen in cattle and other ruminants [1]. BVDV is divided into two different genotypes (genotypes I and II) based on the genetic composition of the 5’-untranslated region (UTR) of the viral genome [2]. These genotypes are distinct from one another [2], but they cause the same disease. BVDV pathogenicity is manifested in two biotypes: noncytopathic (ncp) and cytopathic (cp). In the case of ncp BVDV, the virus can cause an acute or persistent infection [3].
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Epstein Barr Virus Symptoms
The Epstein-Barr virus, also called EBV, is an extremely common virus that infects most people at one time or another during their lifetimes. Epstein-Barr virus infection causes no symptoms or a minor cold-like or flu-like illness in many cases. However, in adolescents and young adults an Epstein-Barr virus infection can cause mononucleosis, a more serious illness. Epstein-Barr virus infection has also been linked to the development of certain rare cancers, including Burkitt’s lymphoma and nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
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The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a member of the herpes group and cause of infectious mononucleosis. It primarily affects young adults and children, although in children it is usually so mild that it is often overlooked. Infectious mononucleosis is fairly common and both sexes are affected equally; prognosis is excellent, and major complications are uncommon.
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Herpes Virus
Herpes viruses are a leading cause of human viral disease, second only to influenza and cold viruses. They are capable of causing overt disease or remaining silent for many years only to be reactivated, for example as shingles. The name herpes comes from the Latin herpes which, in turn, comes from the Greek word herpein which means to creep. This reflects the creeping or spreading nature of the skin lesions caused by many herpes virus types.
There are at least 25 viruses in the family Herpesviridae (currently divided into three sub-families). Eight or more herpes virus types are known to infect man frequently (table 1 and 2, figure 1).
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The herpes virus can also be spread by touching the sores and then touching another part of the body. If you touch the sores, wash your hands with soap and water as soon as possible. Also, do not share towels or clothing with anyone.
Babies can be infected with the herpes virus. If pregnant, you should tell your doctor if you have ever been exposed to anyone with herpes, even if you have never had any symptoms. Your doctor can take special precautions at the time of delivery to protect the baby from getting infected with herpes.
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Wart Virus
The wart virus is very contagious. The skin cells on the warts release thousands of viruses and touching the wart or skin cells on it releases the virus, which can then infect others.
Some children often have trouble not scratching or biting warts on their hands, which can cause the warts to bleed and break up, making then more contagious.
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The wart virus - commonly referred to as HPV or Human Papilloma Virus is a virus which is microscopic in nature and extremely contagious. The best way to determine if you have any strain of this virus is by way of medical HPV testing, followed up by HPV Treatment or wart removal.

There are many strains of warts and the most common are flat warts, body, common warts on the hands of adults and children, genital warts and plantar warts of the feet. Most look like small rough raised bumps or clusters of skin, often with a root or cauliflower-like composition.
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Herpes Zoster Virus
Shingles (herpes zoster virus) is an extremely painful viral infection of the nerve roots resulting in a skin rash caused by the same virus that causes the childhood illness chickenpox. The reactivated virus responsible for these conditions is called the Varicella zoster virus (VZV).
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It is caused by the herpes zoster virus, otherwise called the varicella virus – varicella being the medical name for chickenpox. Believed to be caused by the herpes zoster virus that causes chicken pox, shingles is painful and unsightly, and can lead to blisters and sores that can spread across the chest, back, neck and even the face. herpes simplex virus, herpes zoster virus [shingles], or TB, and (3) invasion of a normally commensal organism (e.
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HPV Virus in Men
much of the information about HPV virus (human papillomavirus) centers on women, since having the virus increases their risk of getting cervical cancer. But HPV virus in men can cause health problems, too. So it’s important for men to understand how to reduce the risks of HPV infection.
It can increase a man’s risk of getting genital cancers, although these cancers are not common. HPV can also cause genital warts in men, just as in women.
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Several pictures of genital warts circulate on the Internet. These are often extreme cases that are so severe that they block the vaginal and anal openings. Please note that cases such as these are uncommon, and these photos should not be used to compare with your personal symptoms. If you suspect that you may have genital warts, see your doctor. It is never a good idea to self-diagnose any condition!
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HPV Virus
At least 1 in every 2 sexually active young women has had a genital HPV infection. Any sexually active person—no matter what color, race, gender, or sexual orientation—can get HPV. HPV is mainly spread by sexual contact. Very rarely, a mother who is infected with the HPV virus can infect her newborn baby during the delivery.
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Much of the information about HPV virus (human papillomavirus) centers on women, since having the virus increases their risk of getting cervical cancer. But HPV virus in men can cause health problems, too. So it’s important for men to understand how to reduce the risks of HPV infection.
It can increase a man’s risk of getting genital cancers, although these cancers are not common. HPV can also cause genital warts in men, just as in women.
More than half of men who are sexually active in the United States will have HPV at some time in their life. Often, a man will clear the virus on his own, with no health problems.
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Chikungunya Virus

Chikungunya virus is no stranger to the Indian sub-continent. Since its first isolation in Calcutta,[1] in 1963, there have been several reports of chikungunya virus infection in different parts of India.[2],[3],[4] The last outbreak of chikungunya virus infection occurred in India in 1971. Subsequently, there has been no active or passive surveillance carried out in the country and therefore, it ‘seemed’ that the virus had ‘disappeared’ from the subcontinent.[5] However, recent reports of large scale outbreaks of fever caused by chikungunya virus infection in several parts of Southern India have confirmed the re-emrgence of this virus.[6],[7],[8] It has been estimated that over 1,80,000 cases have occurred in India since December 2005. Andhra Pradesh (AP) was the first state to report this disease in Deccmber 2005, and one of the worst affected (over 80,000 suspected cases).
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Chikungunya is caused by Chikungunya Virus or CHIK Virus (CHIKV) and it belongs to the alphavirus family. 27 different types of alpha viruses cause diseases in humans and other mammals. Chikungunya virus is just one of them. Under virus classification Chikungunya Virus is a Group IV virus belonging to the Togaviridae family and Alphavirus genus. There are multiple variants of Chikungunya virus and new variants may appear after genetic mutations
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HTLV Virus
In 1980, it became possible to propagate human T lymphocytes with the help of IL-2. Long term cultivation of lymphocytes from patients with T cell leukaemias yielded retrovirus with C-type morphology. HTLV-I and II share most properties such as density, morphology, a 70S RNA, reverse transcriptase and structural proteins with all other replication-competent C-type retrovirus. The major HTLV core protein p24 was shown to be serologically distinct from the core proteins of all previously described viruses. HTLV-I and HTLV-II are often dubbed the “forgotten human retroviruses” in the wake of the massive and unprecedented attention and resources dedicated to HIV. It should not be forgotten though that the discovery of HTLC-I paved the way for the discovery of HIV.
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HTLV: The human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (retroviruses), HTLV-I and HTLV-II, are uncommon in the general U.S. population. They ... more about HTLV.
HTLV: Virus associated with affecting the immune system. More detailed information about the symptoms, causes, and treatments of HTLV is available below.
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Human Parvo Virus
My wife has been ill for some time now and our family doctor has not found out what is wrong. Our doctor sent us to a rumatoid arthritis doctor and that is when we found out she tested positive for the human parvo virus. My wife was on your site last night so you may be answering our question twice but I am very concerned what type of doctor do we need?
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The B19 virus, generally referred to as parvovirus B19 or sometimes erythrovirus B19, was the first (and until 2005 the only) known human virus in the family of parvoviruses, genus erythrovirus. B19 virus causes a childhood rash called fifth disease or erythema infectiosum which is commonly called slapped cheek syndrome.
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Mononucleosis Virus
Infectious mononucleosis (IM) (also known as EBV infectious mononucleosis or Pfeiffer’s disease or Filatov’s disease[1] and colloquially as kissing disease—from its oral transmission—or as mono in North America and as glandular fever in other English-speaking countries) is an infectious, very widespread viral disease caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), one type of herpes virus, to which more than 90% of adults have been exposed.[2] Most people are exposed to the virus as children, when the disease produces no noticeable symptoms or only flu-like symptoms. In developing countries, people are exposed to the virus in early childhood more often than in developed countries, which is why the disease in its observable form is more common in developed countries. It is most common among adolescents and young adults.[3]
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Infectious mononucleosis is also known as ‘glandular fever’. It typically affects young adults aged 15 to 25 years. Infectious mononucleosis is caused by Human herpes virus type 4, more often known as Epstein Barr virus (EBV). This virus is passed from person to person by saliva such as sharing a glass or kissing. The incubation period from contact until symptoms is 1 to 2 months.
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Chronic Epstein Barr Virus

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), or human herpesvirus 4, is a gammaherpesvirus that infects more than 95% of the world’s population. The most common manifestation of primary infection with this organism is acute infectious mononucleosis, a self-limited clinical syndrome that most frequently affects adolescents and young adults. Classic symptoms include sore throat, fever, and lymphadenopathy. Infection with Epstein-Barr virus in younger children is usually asymptomatic or mild. However, Epstein-Barr virus is also a human tumor virus, the first virus associated with human malignancy. Infection with Epstein-Barr virus is associated with lymphoproliferative disorders, especially in immunocompromised hosts, and is associated with various tumors, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma and Burkitt lymphoma.
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The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also called human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is a cancer-causing virus of the herpes family, which includes herpes simplex virus 1 and 2, and is one of the most common viruses in humans. Epstein-Barr virus occurs worldwide and causes infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever). There is also strong evidence that the virus has a primary role in the pathogenesis of multiple autoimmune diseases, particularly dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjogren’s syndrome, and multiple sclerosis. It is also known to cause several lymphoproliferative disorders and cancers, particularly Hodgkin’s disease, Burkitt’s lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinomas, and central nervous system lymphomas associated with HIV. [
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Malaria Virus
Diagnostic Test Anti HIV 1+2 Tests & Malaria P. F Test One Step Anti-HIV 1+2 Test is a rapid direct binding-screening test for the presence of antibodies to HIV 1 and HIV 2 viruses. The test is based on the principle of double antigen sandwich immun...
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Is a malaria a virus? Does fungi cause malaria? What fungi causes malaria? What bacteria cause malaria? Is malaria a virus or fungi? Is malaria bacteria or virus? Is malaria a bacteria disease? Is malaria a virus or bacteira? Malaria is a virus or bacteria? Is malaria a virus or bactweria? Malaria virus bacteria or fungi? What kind of bacteria is malaria? What is malaria and is it a virus? Is malaria a bacteria or a viruse? Is malaria transmitted by bacteria? Is malaria a virus bacteria or fungi? Is malaria a bacteria virus fungi or poop? Are malaria microbes bacteria fungi or viruses? Is Malaria caused by a virus bacterium or fungi? Is malaria caused by a virus bacteria fungi or protist?
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Strep Virus
Everything you need to know about Strep throat, including the most common causes, symptoms and treatments. ... Does Boiling Your Toothbrush Get Rid Of The Strep Virus? ... Everything you need to know about Virus, including the most common causes, symptoms and treatments. ... Strep cannot be accurately diagnosed by symptoms or a physical exam alone. ...
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Chickenpox Virus
Chickenpox is a rash illness caused by a virus. Once a person is exposed to the chickenpox virus, it takes between 2 and 3 weeks before the symptoms appear. Chickenpox usually occurs in childhood. Adults who contract chicken pox are usually more ill, especially with pneumonia. Chickenpox is very common and highly contagious. Approximately 3 million cases occur each year in the United States. More than 90% of Chickenpox cases occur in children less than 12 years of age.
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Chickenpox is caused by a virus called varicella zostervaricella zoster. People who get the virus often develop a rash of spots that look like blisters all over their bodies. The blisters are small and sit on an area of red skin that can be anywhere from the size of a pencil eraser to the size of a dime.
You’ve probably heard that chickenpox are itchy. It’s true. The illness also may come along with a runny nose and cough. But the good news is that chickenpox is a common illness for kids, and most get better by resting just like you do with a cold or the flu.
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Bagle Virus

* The Bagle virus is a malicious software program that sets up a “backdoor” in your computer’s security features. Hackers can take advantage of the backdoor to take over your system and steal your information. Your computer can become infected with the Bagle virus if you download an infected program from an untrustworthy website. To completely remove the Bagle virus, you will need to delete the main files it uses before running an anti-virus utility.
* This malware installs itself when you download an email attachment. It executes and creates a file in your system directory called bbeagle.exe. It is particularly dangerous because the files look legitimate when downloading, and someone who isn’t familiar with the internet may download them without knowing.

Bird Virus
* Avian influenza cannot be diagnosed by symptoms alone, so a laboratory test is required. Avian influenza is usually diagnosed by collecting a swab from the nose or throat during the first few days of illness. This swab is then sent to a laboratory, where they will either look for avian influenza virus using a molecular test, or they will try to grow the virus. Growing avian influenza viruses should only be done in laboratories with high levels of protection. If it is late in the illness, it may be difficult to find an avian influenza virus directly using these methods. If this is the case, it may still be possible to diagnose avian influenza by looking for evidence of the body’s response to the virus. This is not always an option because it requires two blood specimens (one taken during the first few days of illness and another taken some weeks later), and it can take several weeks to verify the results.
* 3/12/2007 - (NaturalNews) Health officials are warning that the bird flu pandemic is far from over, contrary to the impression created by many in the media. In fact, more people died from the virus in 2006 that in the previous two years, and its fatality rate has...
Bronchitis Virus
* Bronchitis is usually caused by infection with a virus. However, bronchitis may also be caused by bacteria, smoking or the inhalation of chemical pollutants or dust. The most common viruses that cause bronchitis are influenza A and B, The most common bacteria that causes bronchitis is

Mycoplasma pneumoniae. :

When the cells of the bronchial-lining tissue are irritated beyond a certain point, the tiny hairs (cilia) within them, which normally trap and eliminate pollutants, stop functioning.

* Is bronchitis a virus? What is bronchitis caused by? Why is bronchitis a bacteria? What bacteria causes bronchitis? Is bronchitis caused by bacteria? Name two ilnesses caused by fungi? Is bronchitis a virus or bacteria? What virus is bronchitis caused from? Bronchitis caused by virus or bacteria? Is Bronchitis caused by bacteria or virus? Is bronchitis caused by a bacteria or virus? Is bronchitis caused by a virus or bacteria? Does bronchitis come from bacteria or a virus? Is the bubonic plague caused by bacteria virus or protist? Infectious desease with virus a bacteria a protist and fungus?

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1. Virus - Introduction

A Glimpse at Viral Diseases in the Ancient Period

Viruses have existed in nature since the millennia, but the evidence of their existence is comparatively recent. Most of our textbooks inform us that the word "virus" originated from the Greek word ios, and was first used in English in 1599. However, we are never told that the Greek word ios actually originated from the Sanskrit word visha, meaning poison (see Webster's dictionary). We know very well that...Read More

Viruses

Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites. Probably there are no cells in nature that escape infection by one or more kinds of...Read More

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2. Virus Diseases

Viral Diseases of Plants

Viruses are intracellular (inside cells) pathogenic particles that infect other living organisms. Human diseases caused by viruses include chickenpox, herpes, influenza, rabies, smallpox, and AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome). Although these are the...Read More

Susceptibility to Serious Viral Disease in Pregnancy A Problem of Immune Regulation?

The current swine-origin H1N1 pandemic has highlighted the fact that pregnant patients are susceptible to serious disease or life-threatening complications following acute viral infections such as...Read More

Oxidants and Antioxidants in Viral Diseases: Disease Mechanisms and Metabolic Regulation

Reactive oxygen and nitrogen metabolites play a complex role in many diseases and in metabolic regulation. Because viruses replicate in living cells, such metabolites influence the growth of viruses in addition to serving as a...Read More

Nutrition and Newly Emerging Viral Diseases

Infectious diseases are on the increase worldwide. When discussing interactions of nutrition and infection, nutritionists have traditionally considered only the effects of diet on the host. Recent data, however, indicate that,...Read More

Combating HIV and Hepatitis C Viral Diseases

The impact of viruses is a growing medical concern. These tiny parasites have long helped shape the course of human evolution and in some cases have likely become embedded in genes and in the structure of parts of cells. As the...
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Emerging Viral Diseases of Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia has been the breeding ground for many emerging diseases in the past decade, e.g. the avian fl u (H5N1) in Hong Kong in 1997, Nipah virus encephalitis in Malaysia in 1998, and, above all,...Read More

Integrated Management of Viral Diseases in Field-Grown Tomatoes in Southern Italy

Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is a Tospovirus affecting field tomato crops worldwide. The virus is transmitted by some species of thrips. The most damaging vectors in Italy are Frankliniella occidentalis and Thrips tabaci. Only the first instar larvae can acquire the virus from... Read More

Viral Diseases Lab Work

Objectives

1) Observe symptoms and signs of typical plant diseases caused by viruses.

2) Learn about methods of virus transmission

Click here to know more

European Network for Diagnostics of "Imported" Viral Diseases

Numerous viral outbreaks in the last years like Ebola in Kikwit/Zaire,Côte d'Ivoire, and Liberia in 1996/97 and Nipah Virus in Malaysia in 1998 led to the building of the European Network for Diagnostics of "Imported" Viral Diseases (ENIVD). The list of VHFs comprise more than a...Read More

Labeling Techniques in the Diagnosis of Viral Diseases

The principle underlying the use of labeled antibody in the study of cellular antigens, both natural and foreign, is well understood. Recent reviews have been published by...Read More

Microarray-Based Detection and Genotyping of Viral Pathogens

The rational diagnosis of viral diseases requires the identification of viral pathogens in clinical specimens and subsequent correlation between presence of the virus and the clinical syndrome. In some instances, where the disease is associated with a particular viral agent, the task is relatively straightforward, and a number of...Read More

A Catalog of Viral Diseases of Insects, Mites, and Ticks

This comprehensive catalog of insects, mites, and ticks reported to have viral diseases is generated from a computer-assisted information system on viral diseases established at the Forestry Sciences Laboratory in 1970 (Martignoni et al.1973). The present catalog results from our analysis of 4,287 publications (as of this writing). Of these, 733 had been the basis of lists published by Hughes (1957) and by Martignoni and Langston (1960). Those two lists, as well as the current catalog,are not the result of simple title scans; they were...Read More

The Status of Viral Diseases of Carp in Korea: Its Control and Research Development

The carp (Cyprinus carpio) is the most common species of cultured fish, in particular, common carp and Israel carp have been cultured as an edible fish for several decades in Korea. Viral diseases of carp have never been reported until 1998 despite its...Read More

Exotic Viral Diseases and the Current Threat to the Irish Equine Population

Outbreaks of exotic viral diseases have become a very a real threat to animal populations worldwide in recent years. The UK has experienced foot and mouth disease (Gibbens et al., 2001) and bluetongue virus (Darpel et al., 2007) in cattle and sheep and the highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus, which has...
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Viral Diseases

Click here to know the list of different diseases and their causative agents.

Report about Fish Viral Diseases

A total of 27 laboratories in 9 different countries state that they perform virological studies. However the scrutiny of the answers determines that only 13 laboratories from 6 countries (Croatia, France, Greece, Italy, Romania and Spain) regularly perform virological diagnosis. A number of countries (Cyprus, Egypt, Morocco, Portugal and Turkey) also...Read More

Gill-Associated Virus Disease

The causative agent is gill-associated virus (GAV), a corona-like RNA virus that has been classified with yellowhead virus in the genus Okavirus, family Ronaviridae and order Nidovirales. Comparison of DNA sequences indicates...
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Genetic Resistance of the Silkworm, Bombyx Mori to Viral Diseases

Sericulture has been one of the main branches of agriculture in Asiatic countries for hundreds of years. Most of the damage to sericulture can be attributed directly to silkworm diseases,rather than to unfavorable weather conditions that lead to...Read More

Virology and Viral Disease

Sericulture has been one of the main branches of agriculture in Asiatic countries for hundreds of years. Most of the damage to sericulture can be attributed directly to silkworm diseases, rather than to unfavorable weather conditions that lead to...Read More

Ebola Virus Disease in Southern Sudan

Ebola was identified in 1976 in association with two simultaneous outbreaks of Hemorrhagic fever in...Read More

Virus and Viral Diseases of Sub-Saharan Africa

Several viral diseases have been reported to affect yams in Africa. However, researchefforts to identify these viruses and quantify their effects on the crop have been limited in most countries. Surveys conducted in some yam growing areas have revealed differences

in susceptibility and reaction of yam varieties to these viral diseases. Symptoms vary depending on the...Read More

Viral Diseases of Fish

Several viral diseases have been reported to affect yams in Africa. However, research efforts to identify these viruses and quantify their effects on the crop have been limited in

most countries. Surveys conducted in some yam growing areas have revealed differences in susceptibility and reaction of yam varieties to...Read More

Laboratory Results in Ocular Viral Diseases

The eye and its adnexal structures are subject to a great number of diseases that are attributable to viruses such as herpes simplex 1, 2 (HSV 1, 2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), adenovirus, enterovirus, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein- Barr virus, rabies virus, measles, mumps and others. Viruses can affect many different areas of the...Read More

A Viral Disease of the Ivory Barnacle, Balanus eburneus, Gould (Crustacea, Cirripedia)

The class Cimpedia, the only sessile group of crustaceans, includes many diverse marine animals. The most familiar Cirripedes are the barnacles, approximately two-thirds of which are free-living and economically important as fouling agents on ships, piers, and...Read More

Viral Diseases and Human Evolution

The astonishing development of molecular and cell biology in recent years made possible a detailed study of the molecular genetics of host-parasite assemblages using the methodology of population genetics, molecular systematics, molecular epidemiology...Read More

Emerging Viral Diseases in South-East Asia and the Western Pacific: the Importance of Biosecurity and the Dilemma of Dual-Use

SARS was the first severe and readily transmissible new disease to emerge in the 21st century. Much about the disease even now remains poorly understood, especially major epidemiological aspects such as...Read More

Viral Diseases of Poaceae Family Plants

Forage feed plants belong to a group of plants highly important for the nutrition of domestic and wild animals. Many of these plants are grown in plowed fields or represent cultivated and spontaneous inhabitants of meadow, pasture and roadside plant populations. During the vegetation period the yield of perennial forage grass is...Read More

Pinpointing Grapevine Virus Diseases

Historically, viral diseases have been named to reflect the symptoms observed in diseased plants (e.g., grapevine decline, fan leaf degeneration, yellow vein disease, etc.).With the advent of molecular tools for the characterization of different causal agents, it has been possible to determine that many different viruses (related or unrelated) may cause...Read More

Epidemiology, Economic Burden, and Risk Factors of Chronic Viral Diseases

The global epidemics of HIV infection (40 million) and HBV infection (400 million) overlap so that approximately 4 million individuals worldwide are co-infected with HIV and HBV. Generally about 5%-10% of HIV infected individuals are co-infected with HBV, but the...Read More

Unconventional Vaccines: Immunization with Antildiotype Antibody against

Viral Diseases

The concept of antiidiotype vaccines relates to the generation of immune response to an antigen (virus, bacteria, parasites) by immunization of the host with an immunoglobulin that defines a specific region on the anti-pathogen antibody molecule and in turn engenders an...Read More

Viral diseasesAbalone Viral Mortality

Abalone viral mortality is caused by a number of spherical viruses. Four spherical virus types have been implicated: type I is the least virulent, resulting in poor conditioning and reduced growth rates; types II, III and IV are highly virulent, resulting in...Read More

Emerging Paradigms in the Renal Pathology of Viral Diseases

A nephropathy that is associated with HIV infection was identified soon after the epidemic of HIV/AIDS first became recognized in the early 1980s. HIV-associated nephropathy (HIVAN) is a combined glomerular and tubular injury that is characterized by a collapsing glomerulopathy (CG) with collapse of glomerular capillary structures and a striking hyperplasia of podocytes...Read More

The Public Health Threat of Emerging Viral Disease

€˜€˜Emerging diseases€™€™ are those that either have newly appeared in the population or are rapidly increasing their incidence or expanding their geographic range. Emerging viruses usually have identifiable sources, often existing viruses of animals or humans that have been given opportunities to infect new host populations (€˜€˜viral traffic€™€™). Environmental and social changes, frequently the...Read More

Viral Diseases of the Respiratory System

Infectious bronchitis, Newcastle disease, infectious laryngotracheitis, avian influenza, and pneumovirus are the viruses that more frequently affect the respiratory tract of chickens. Because of the tendency to change its antigenic properties, infectious bronchitis is currently the viral disease present in most poultry producing areas of the world. New serotypes and variant strains are...
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Fungal and Fungal-like Diseases of Plants

Collectively, fungi and fungal-like organisms (FLOs) cause more plant diseases than any other group of plant pest with over 8,000 species shown to cause disease. FLOs are organisms like Pythium and Phytophthora and those that cause downy mildew that until recently were considered fungi but due to...Read More

Norovirus in Captive Lion Cub

Lions (Panthera leo) are susceptible to viral diseases of domestic carnivores, including infections with canine distemper virus, feline parvovirus, feline retroviruses, feline herpesvirus, and feline calicivirus (FCV). Antibodies to FCV have been detected in captive lions, and calicivirus-like particles have been detected in oral vesicular lesions of captive immature lions. Despite the presence of FCV-specific antibodies and the observation that cub survival may...Read More

Epidemiological Aspects of Shrimp Viral Diseases in India

Scientific shrimp culture began in India in the late eighties along the east coast particularly in...Read More

Recent Advances in Chemotherapy of Mucocutaneous Viral Diseases

The involvement of the skin and/or mucosa may be either a part of a systemic viral disease or the only manifestation of a viral disease. The former is classified as generalized viral disease involving the skin and mucosa and the latter localized viral disease. Since the mucosa serves as the...Read More

Differentiation of Rubella Virus Strains by Neutralization Kinetics

The neutralization of rubella virus was investigated and shown to proceed by first order kinetics over the first Io to i5 min. A comparison of the rate constant of neutralization (K) for six strains of rubella virus was...Read More

Heterologous Reactivity of Tobacco Mosaic Virus Strains in Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assays

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) differentiated between the antigens of the type strains of tobacco mosaicvirus (TMV)and those of the avocado isolate (TMV-A). The ELISA specificity in the heterologous antibody systems was affected mainly by the...Read More

Isolation of Two Vaccinia Virus Strains from a Single Bovine Vaccinia Outbreak in Rural Area from Brazil: Implications on the Emergence of Zoonotic Orthopoxviruses

Outbreaks of bovine vaccinia disease caused by circulation of Vaccinia virus (VACV) strains have been a common occurrence in Brazil in the recent years, being an important emergent zoonosis. During a single outbreak that took place in 2001, two genetically different VACV strains were isolated and named Guarani P1 virus (GP1V) and Guarani P2 virus (GP2V). Molecular diagnosis was done through restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of ati gene (A26L) and...
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Modification of Dengue Virus Strains by Passage in Primary Dog Kidney Cells: Preparation of Candidate Vaccines and Immunization of Monkeys

Prior to the advent of cell culture technology for use in vaccine manufacture, early attempts to grow dengue viruses (DENV) for the specific purpose of vaccine preparation were of limited success. The first recorded attempt was by Simmons and others who used DENV-infected mosquito suspensions that were...Read More

A New Influenza Virus Virulence Determinant: The NS1 Protein Four
C-Terminal Residues Modulate Pathogenicity

The virulence of influenza virus is a multigenic trait. One determinant of virulence is the multifunctional NS1 protein that functions in several ways to defeat the cellular innate immune response. Recent large-scale genome sequence analysis of avian influenza virus isolates indicated that four C-terminal residues of the...Read More

Biochemical Evidence that "New" Influenza Virus Strains in Nature May Arise by Recombination (Reassortment)

Oligonucleotide analysis of two avian influenza A viruses (Hav6N2 and Hav6Nav4) isolated in nature showed identical or almost identical patterns for the corresponding

M and HA genes: 24 of 25 and 13 of 13 large oligonucleotides were indistinguishable by two-dimensional gel analysis. On the other hand, remarkable differences in the oligonucleotide patterns of...Read More

Click here to read about €œIn vitro differentiation of transmissible Gastroenteritis virus strains by plaque sizes in swine testis cell culture€.

Identification of Varicella-Zoster Virus Strains by PCR Analysis of Three Repeat Elements and a PstI-Site-Less Region

Herpes zoster (shingles) is caused by recurrent varicellazoster virus (VZV) infection from a latent state. About 10% of humans are affected by shingles during their lifetimes (11), and many of them suffer from postherpetic neuralgia. Because some patients with postherpetic neuralgia, especially those who are senile, are never relieved of the...Read More

Heterogeneity of Influenza B Virus Strains in One Epidemic Season Differentiated by Monoclonal Antibodies and Nucleotide Sequences

Influenza is one of the most important infectious diseases in industrial as well as developing countries. Over the past 20 years, influenza B virus has caused epidemics in humans, as have the H1 and H3 subtypes of influenza A virus. Influenza B virus is isolated only from humans and is...Read More

Phylogenetic Analysis of Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Strains from State of Minas Gerais, Brazil

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) belongs to the Retroviridae family and is a typical lentivirus that resembles the human and simian immunodeficiency viruses in its morphologic features, genomic and protein structures (Olmsted et al., 1989). FIV was isolated in 1986 from a...Read More

Observations on Thi Numbers of Virus-Resistant Mutants Developing in the Host-Virus System of the Lactic Streptococci

Virus-resistant mutants in single-strain cultures of lactic streptococci were studied, to determine the effects of temperature and age of culture on mutation rate, using two plate culture methods and a multiple subculture method. The number of resistant mutants by plating methods varied from 0 to 66.2 per 1 × 10 ~ colony count of the...Read More

Click here to view the €œBiological characteristics of Influenza virus strains€

Banana Bunchy Top Virus

Banana bunchy top virus (BBTV) is one of the most serious diseases of banana. Once established, it is extremely difficult to eradicate or manage. BBTV is widespread in...Read More

Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus

Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus (ISAV) is a highly infectious disease of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) that was first reported within Norwegian aquaculture facilities. The disease has since been...Read More

West Nile Virus (WNV)

West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-carried virus that can cause illness ranging from a mild fever to more serious disease like encephalitis or meningitis. It was first...Read More

What is West Nile Virus?

West Nile is a mosquito-borne virus that can cause encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) or meningitis (inflammation of the lining of the brain and spinal cord). It first appeared in the U.S. in...Read More

H1N1 Flu Virus (Human Swine Flu)

The H1N1 flu virus is a respiratory disease caused by type A influenza viruses. These viruses have been reported to spread from...Read More

Feline Leukemia Virus in the Environment

Enveloped feline viruses contain a lipoprotein layer or envelope around the nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) and viral protein core. This lipid makes these enveloped viruses more susceptible to...Read More

Feline Leukemia Virus

Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) is a retrovirus, a family of viruses which has many members that infect cats and cause disease and death in cats around the world. Another well-known feline retrovirus is the...Read More

Epstein-Barr Virus/Mono

Epstein-Barr virus is a member of the Herpes Virus family and one of the most...Read More

West Nile Virus

People can get West Nile virus mainly from the bite of an infected mosquito. Mosquitoes can then transmit the...Read More

The H1N1 Influenza A Virus

A new strain of an existing influenza virus has appeared, and with it an opportunity to test years of local, state, federal, and international emergency planning. The outcome is...Read More

Viral Hepatitis

Hepatitis literally means inflammation of the liver. This section focuses on viral hepatitis, infection caused by a group of viruses that primarily affect the liver. Important forms of...Read More

Viral Diseases

Marek's disease is characteristically a disease of young chickens but older birds can also be affected. In contrast to the lymphoid leukosis tumor response, Marek's disease may be...Read More

Mosquito-Borne Viral Diseases

If you get any flu-like symptoms especially in the summer months, see your doctor at once. No specific vaccine for humans exists for these diseases. However,...Read More

Introduction to Viral Diseases of Fish

Viruses are very small infectious agents that multiply only within the living cells of an animal or plant host. Other microorganisms, such as...Read More

Emerging Viral Diseases of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific

With a few exceptions, most interest and attention regarding emerging viral diseases in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific have been directed at zoonotic and vectorborne diseases. However, other...Read More

Viral Diseases Panels

Members of the U.S. and Japanese €œPanels on Virus Diseases,€ as the Panels were then called, reached a consensus to focus on arthropod-borne viruses and respiratory viruses. However, because of...Read More

Introduction to Viral Diseases of Fish

Viruses are very small infectious agents that multiply only within the living cells of an animal or plant host. Other microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, have organelles for their own metabolism, but...Read More

Viral Diseases of Corn in Illinois

More than 25 viruses are known to infect corn. So far, only 4 viruses have caused natural infections of the corn crop in Illinoisthose causing maize dwarf mosaic (MDM), sugarcane mosaic (SCM, formerly MDM strain B), maize dwarf mosaic (MDM), wheat streak mosaic (WSM), and...Read More

Fish Viral Disease

Fish viral diseases are impossible to treat directly; the best you can do is avoid buying infected fish and quarantine all new fish prior...Read More

West Nile Virus and Workers

The West Nile Virus (WNv) is a mosquito-borne virus that can cause swelling and inflammation of the brain and spinal cord in horses, birds, and humans. The virus is named after the West Nile region of Uganda, where...Read More

Risk Communication, the West Nile Virus Epidemic, and Bioterrorism

The intentional or unintentional introduction of a pathogen in an urban setting presents severe communication challenges. Risk communication a science based approach for communicating effectively in...Read More

Pregnancy and H1N1 Flu Virus

As an expectant mother, it€™s natural to be concerned about how the flu pandemic might affect your pregnancy and your unborn child. The Public Health Agency of Canada wants to...Read More

Emergence of Oseltamivir-Resistant Pandemic H1N1 Virus during Prophylaxis

Neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir and zanamivir) are recommended for treatment of severe illness caused by the 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus, and their...Read More

Influenza Virus Vaccine, H5N1

Influenza Virus Vaccine, H5N1, is an inactivated monovalent influenza virus vaccine, indicated for active immunization of persons 18 through 64 years of age at...Read More

Potato Virus Y

Potato virus Y (PVY) infects a range of solanaceous crops including potato, capsicum, tomato, tobacco and certain solanaceous weeds, such as blackberry nightshade. PVY rarely infects weeds in the field. Yearly carryover is...Read More

Malaysian Outbreak of Nipah Virus in People and Swine

The outbreak of Nipah disease in Malaysia, which has caused human fatalities, has been attributed to a viral infection in pigs. The outbreak in 1998/99 has been...Read More

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3. Virus - Vaccines

Viral Vaccines

Viral Vaccines for Dengue: The Present and the Future Infection with dengue viruses, of which there are four antigenically distinct serotypes, has reemerged as a significant global public health threat. Sequential infection in areas of hyperendemicity, where multiple serotypes co-circulate, has the potential to trigger life-threatening disease.Therefore, a safe and effective dengue vaccine must be...Read More

Custom Optimization of Cell Culture Media for Production of Viral Vaccines

Vivalis, a Nantes, France-based biotechnology company, has developed EB66®, a novel cell line derived from duck embryonic stem cells for the cell culture production of viral vaccines. The cell line circumvents the quality and quantity control issues associated with...Read More

Vaccination

The development of antiviral vaccines is highly dependent upon the infection cycle of the viral pathogen itself. Viruses that have an extracellular, viremic stage in the infection cycle are...Read More

€œDesigner€ Cells as Substrates for the Manufacture of Viral Vaccines

In 1954, during discussions surrounding the development of adenovirus vaccines for use in the military, the U.S. Armed Forces Epidemiology Board (AFEB) recommended the use of €œnormal cells€ as the substrate for vaccine production rather than cell lines established from human tumors. This decision was based on concerns about the possibility that human tumor cells might be contaminated with...Read More

Adjuvant Activity of a Novel Metabolizable Lipid Emulsion with Inactivated Viral Vaccines

Studies were conducted in mice, hamsters, sheep, and two species of nonhuman primates which demonstrate the adjuvant activity of a new metabolizable lipid emulsion with marginally immunogenic doses of Formalin-inactivated viral vaccines.

The lipid base consists of highly refined peanut oil emulsified in aqueous vaccines with...Read More

Combination of Protein and Viral Vaccines Induces Potent Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses and Enhanced Protection from Murine Malaria Challenge

Numerous subunit vaccines have been developed in an effort to create an effective vaccine that will protect against malaria infection. The most advanced and successful of these strategies have focused on the induction of either cellular or humoral immunity to the preerythrocytic stage of...Read More

Rapid Quality Control of Viral Vaccines - A Practical Application of the ProtoCOL system

Internationally, a large number of adults and children are routinely vaccinated to protect them against a range of diseases. Many of these vaccines consist of an inactivated strain of a virus that causes the disease. If the concentration of the viral vaccine is incorrect then the protection may be...Read More

Development of Induction Assays to Investigate Latent Viruses in Vaccine Cell Substrates

Details on

Cell substrates for licensed vaccines

Novel cell substrates

Additional safety concerns

Cell-substrate testing requirements

Virus induction assays...Read More

Antibody Response to Inactivated Viral Vaccines Administered to Calves at Weaning

Respiratory disease in beef calves has been associated with the stress of weaning. Management practices commonly delay vaccination of calves to this time, and weaning stress could potentially suppress the immune response. To reduce this stress we have been experimenting with a procedure termed €œpasture weaning€ in which the dams are...Read More

The Basics of Viral Vaccines

Viral vaccines are one of the success stories of medicine. The impact of vaccines on disease prevalence and prevention cannot be matched by any other healthcare-related intervention. The most dramatic of these was the eradication of smallpox in 1979. Poliomyelitis was...Read More

Specific Requirements for the Production and Control of Equine Live and Inactivated Viral and Bacterial Vaccines

Guidance on the type of data which should be included in applications for marketing authorizations for equine viral and bacterial vaccines are provided in this link. It is...Read More

Viral Vaccines

Passive immunization is done by injection of specific antibodies (immunoglobulins) to certain disease, this is not a vaccine...Read More

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4. Virus - Research

Oseltamivir-Resistant Influenza a Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Hong Kong, China

Resistance to oseltamivir was observed in influenza A pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus isolated from an untreated person in Hong Kong, China. Investigations showed a resistant virus with the neuraminidase (NA) 274Y genotype in quasi-species from a...Read More

Serologic Survey of Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Virus, Guangxi Province, China

Human pandemics occur when a new virus subtype emerges that is capable of human-to-human transmission in a population with little or no neutralizing antibodies to...Read More

Information on Live Virus Vaccines and Vaccinia

A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine that contains a "living" virus that is able to...Read More

West Nile Virus in New Jersey

Mosquitoes can become infected with WNV by feeding on birds that have the virus in their bloodstream. Once a mosquito is infected with the virus it can...Read More

Purifying Human Influenza Virus Vaccine Towards a Generic Strategy

Viral vectors and viral vaccines play an important role in current medical approaches.

Viral vectors like adenoviruses, adeno associated viruses, or retro-viruses are the vehicles being developed for delivering genetic material to the target cell in gene therapy. Viral vaccines, such as...Read More

Biologically Safe, Non-Transmissible Pseudorabies Virus Vector Vaccine Protects Pigs against both Aujeszky€™s Disease and Classical Swine Fever

Envelope glycoprotein D (gD) of pseudorabies virus (PRV) is essential for penetration but is not required for cell-to-cell spread. When animals are inoculated with a phenotypically complemented PRV gD mutant, the virus is able to...Read More

Recombinant Viral Vaccines for Enzootic Bovine Leucosis

Recently published studies on the development and use of recombinant vaccinia virus(VV) vaccines incorporating either the complete envelope (env) gene or only a fragment of the env gene consisting of the coding sequence for the env glycoprotein 51 (gp51) and part of gp30 of the bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) are described. It has been reported that vaccination of sheep with recombinant VY vaccines containing the complete env gene appears to protect sheep against challenge infection -with BLV. The evidence for this protection is based on...
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West Nile Virus Reaches the Lake Tahoe Basin

The best way to prevent West Nile Virus infection is to learn about the disease and how to protect yourself and your family from it. Here are the facts about the West Nile virus as compiled by the California Department of Health Services. West Nile virus is a mosquito-borne disease that is...Read More

Tomato and Sweet Corn Blemishes

Temperature is the main cause of poor pollination. In early spring night temperatures are too low. As the nights become warmer and temperatures remain above 55°F, fruit set improves. When day temperatures range above 100° F, fruit set also decreases. A sudden hot spell will interfere with fruit set for...Read More

Multiple Sclerosis in Genetically Susceptible Twins is Augmented by Northern Environment

A new study of twins suggests that living farther north of the equator significantly increases risk of developing Multiple Sclerosis (MS) among those with genetic susceptibility due to some environmental factor. The concordance (both twins being diagnosed with MS) among identical twin pairs born in the north was nearly...Read More

The Effects of Avian Influenza News on Consumer Purchasing Behavior

To better understand how information about potential health hazards influences food demand, this case study examines consumers€™ responses to newspaper articles on avian influenza, informally referred to as bird flu. The focus here is on the response to...Read More

Proposed Considerations for Antiviral Drug Stockpiling by Employers in Preparation for an Influenza Pandemic

The Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recently released a draft of...Read More

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5. Virus - Questions

Questions and Answers H1N1 Flu Virus Outbreak

As with other flu seasons, H1N1 appears to have displaced circulating seasonal flu strains and since there is still an indication that the H1N1 Vaccine may be...
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6. Virus - News

News Framing West Nile Virus an Outbreak of New Health Hazard

West Nile Virus appeared in New York City in the summer of 1999. The outbreak of this virus caught scientists and government agencies by surprise since it had never before been detected in the...Read More

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7. Virus Articles

Virology Journal

All the Virology on the WWW seeks to be the best single site for Virology information on the Internet. We have collected all the virology related Web sites that might be of interest to our fellow virologists, and others interested in learning more about viruses. Additionally,...Read More

Click here to view the Journal of infectious diseases

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